Sunday, August 5, 2012

Death Could Not Separate Them: How Elizabeth I Connected to Her Deceased Mother

A composite image of Queen Elizabeth I and her mother, Anne Boleyn. Picture acquired through Flickr, created and shared for public use by Inor19/Kiki. Image public domain
 ~This article is dedicated to my dear friend Mia, who has been researching Queen Elizabeth I and already knows so much! Mia is now working on a program where she portrays the young Elizabeth Tudor in the first person for her local library; I look forward to supporting this bright young star at her first performance. Mia is only ten, and she already reads Alison Weir! :)~

It is often asserted that we do not know how Queen Elizabeth I felt about her mother, Anne Boleyn. And it is still widely written that Elizabeth was recorded as having only spoken of her mother twice in her entire lifetime. As a voracious researcher of all things Elizabeth Tudor, and a first-person historical interpreter of Elizabeth I, I am constantly asked how I believe Elizabeth felt about her mother, Anne Boleyn, who was executed when she was just two years and 8 months old.

Anne Boleyn in the Tower by Edouard Cibot, 1836. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

This is a very valid question, that gives birth to a variety of other questions. If we can ask, "how did Elizabeth Tudor feel about her mother?" then we must also ask, "how did she form that opinion?" Furthermore, we must examine how she rectified her feelings about her deceased mother with her relationship with the father that had her killed.

Using a surprising amount of contemporary evidence and a little bit of conjecture based on fact, I believe I have arrived at a formed opinion on the matter, and I am excited to share it with my readers. Hopefully you will discover things here that you did not know before, and upon finishing the article, share with others how Queen Elizabeth I really felt about her mother, Queen Anne Boleyn.

Queen Anne and Her Daughter

Elizabeth Tudor spent a very brief time with her mother. As was typical in 16th century royal families, Elizabeth was breastfed by a wet-nurse, (despite Anne Boleyn's protestations that she would breastfeed her daughter herself) and infrequently saw her mother. Still, Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII visited their daughter as often as their schedules would allow, and Anne kept up fervent correspondence with those she had entrusted with Elizabeth's care. And, since many of Queen Anne's personal records survive, we know that Anne took great care planning her baby daughter's wardrobe, personally selecting cloth and trimming. Had Anne and Elizabeth been allowed more time together, these two kindred spirits would have undoubtedly enjoyed a close bond. And, perhaps in Elizabeth's adolescence, they would have butted heads a little bit, given that they were so similar!

Despite the fact that Henry VIII had moved heaven and earth to marry Anne Boleyn, his passion for her had almost died out by the third year of their marriage. The qualities in Anne that had initially captivated Henry now irritated him greatly. Queen Anne had been informed that her husband's staff was now questioning members of her own household, and a cancellation of the couples trip to Calais was imminent. The Queen decided to confront her husband about the rumors that he was displeased with her. She must have known that her time was running out, and she appealed to her husband in the most dramatic way possible: through her daughter. The religious reformer Alesius was present at this tragic occasion on Sunday, April 30th, and he later retold the story to an inquisitive Queen Elizabeth I, saying, 

"Alas, I shall never forget the sorrow I felt when I saw the sainted Queen, your most religious mother, carrying you, still a baby, in her arms, and entreating the most serene King your father in Greenwich Palace, from the open window of which he was looking into the courtyard and she brought you to him. The faces and gestures of the speakers plainly showed the King was angry."(quoted in Denny)
Before Queen Anne was imprisoned in the Tower, she made provisions for her daughter's welfare. Just four days before the now-infamous May Day joust, Anne entrusted the Boleyn family chaplain, Matthew Parker, with her daughter's spiritual well-being (Weir, 5).  Matthew Parker would fulfill this duty, and upon Elizabeth's accession he was rewarded for his loyalty to her and her mother, being made Archbishop of Canterbury.

Parker preserved many of Queen Anne and her family members' letters and papers before their ruin; most likely he entrusted them to Queen Elizabeth sometime after 1558. These documents probably did a great deal to illuminate for Elizabeth the life of the mother she had barely known. Another Boleyn family friend, Thomas Cranmer, wrote a very long letter to King Henry VIII on Anne's behalf, in the hope that it would buy her some time (Denny, 279). Still, though, Cranmer's wording in the letter was heavily guarded, because he knew better than to go against the King's justice . After-all, Cranmer had been appointed the task of securing an annulment for the King from Queen Anne; Anne would die for adultery, having never been a wife (Weir, 242-45).

A detail from a Tudor portrait of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

There is evidence that Queen Anne may have been led to believe, at least for a short time, that she and her daughter would be allowed to go into exile in the Protestant countries on the Continent, provided they never returned to England. Cranmer likely fed Queen Anne false information in an attempt to get her to cooperate with an annulment. The Constable of the Tower, Master Kingston reported after Cranmer's meeting with Anne, "This day at dinner, the Queen said she should go to a nunnery, and is in hope of life" (Weir 245). But this, as we know all too well, did not come to pass.

Anne Boleyn Says a Final Goodbye to her Daughter, Princess Elizabeth by Gustaf Wappers, 1838. Picture acquired through InspirationNow's Tumblr, courtesy of aurora_von_g. Image public domain.


After The Fall of Anne Boleyn

After the execution of Queen Anne, the court was ripe with horrible slander against her, and given the crimes she had been convicted of, questions concerning her daughter's paternity were circulating (Weir, 316-317). Lady Margaret Bryan and Elizabeth's gentlewoman (and later Governess) Kat Champernowne, no doubt shielded Elizabeth I as best they could from what had really happened, given her young and impressionable age. Margaret Bourchier, Lady Bryan (who was the half-sister of Elizabeth Howard, Anne Boleyn's mother) and Katherine Champernowne (later Astley or Ashley) were both installed by Queen Anne to take care of the Princess Elizabeth (Weir, 314-315). Champernowne was some sort of a Boleyn family connection shown favor by Queen Anne, and she was likely to have always been indebted to her former benefactress. The women cared for Elizabeth as best as they could, given the King's lackadaisical interest in his daughter's upbringing, and provided her with some stability. But the walls of the nursery could not hide Elizabeth from the truth forever.

Since Kat became a surrogate mother figure to Elizabeth, serving her until her death in 1565, we can assume that whatever Kat thought of Anne Boleyn would have been shared, either purposefully or inadvertently, with Elizabeth, even though Henry VIII has forbidden anyone to speak to Elizabeth about her mother.

A detail of a portrait in the collection of Lord Hastings, purportedly of Katherine Champernowne-Ashley. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

We do not know when or how Elizabeth discovered her mother had been beheaded on the orders of her father, but we do know that she recognized the change in her status by the way people were addressing her. Elizabeth, as we know, was incredibly perceptive and precocious from the time that she could speak, and very soon after her mother's death she was recorded to have remarked, "How hath it, yesterday my Lady Princess, and today but my Lady Elizabeth?" 

I agree with Weir's conjecture that Elizabeth probably found out what had really happened to her mother over time, having only initially been told a simplified version as a child, and then some placating half-truths as she questioned the story as she grew. Let us hope that she did not find out about the nature of her mother's demise by overhearing it when she was staying at Hunsdon House with her half sister, the Lady Mary Tudor; Lady Kingston visited the Lady Mary on May 26th, 1536, probably to give Mary a first-hand account of Anne's demise (Weir, 319).

However she found out, the "growing awareness of her bastard status must have caused the maturing Elizabeth recurring distress and enduring insecurities, and certainly affected her emotional development." (Weir, 320)

A portrait of the Princess Elizabeth Tudor by William Scrots, c.1546. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

Most historians agree that her mother's death at the hands of her father, along with the other tragic fates of women in her family at the hands of men, was one of the primary reasons Elizabeth I resolved herself never to marry. The execution of her mother's cousin, and her young stepmother, Katherine Howard in 1542 for similar charges, likely brought Elizabeth's feelings about marriage and her mother to a fever pitch, along with her knowledge of the sordid and sometimes sad marriages of her paternal aunts. Elizabeth's lifelong favorite, Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester, would later recall his friend Elizabeth declaring at the tender age of 8, "I will never marry." The young Elizabeth had experienced family-induced trauma, and was trying to make sense of it all at a very young, and vulnerable age.

A sketch by Hans Holbein, supposedly of Anne Boleyn's cousin and Henry VIII's fifth wife, Katherine Howard. Picture acquired through Flickr, created and shared for public use by Inor19/Kiki. Image public domain

The Earliest Clues

By 1544 we have our first clue to show us what Elizabeth Tudor thought about her mother. This strong piece of evidence comes to us from the Whitehall family grouping, The Family of Henry VIII. Weir references the evidence and its significance to the bond Elizabeth was forging with her deceased mother in several of her books.

The Family of King Henry VIII, c. 1544. From left to right: A female fool, probably Will Sommers wife, Mary Tudor, Edward VI, King Henry VIII, Jane Seymour, and Elizabeth, followed by Will Sommers. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

Around the year 1544, Henry VIII had a brilliant piece of Tudor propaganda commissioned to portray his ideal nuclear family, and to also re-iterate his Act of Succession of that same year. It now hangs in Hampton Court Palace. The young Elizabeth, aged about ten or eleven, is shown wearing around her neck a pendant in the shape of an "A." Initial pendants were popular in Tudor times, and we know that Anne Boleyn had at least three initial pendants made, the aforementioned "A", the famous "B" necklace, and an "AB", which she wears in the Nidd Hall portrait (Weir, 187).

The Nidd Hall Portrait, probably of Anne Boleyn. The portrait was done in the second half of the 16th century, and may have been copying an earlier original. One of the major clues that this portrait is of Queen Anne is that the sitter can be seen wearing one of her documented initial pendants, the "AB". Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

Elizabeth was probably wearing this pendant that had belonged to her mother often enough for it to have been associated with her. And, I agree with Weir's conclusion that for Elizabeth to publicly display her connection to her mother by donning the pendant in the portrait was not only a quiet act of defiance, (which Henry VIII must have chosen to ignore, given he approved the portrait) but it proves that she must have already been told enough sympathetic things about her mother to have formed a good opinion of her. This means that the royal edict to never speak of Anne Boleyn in Elizabeth's presence was being ignored by more than a few people, and perhaps King Henry had accepted that his daughter had already made up her mind on her mother's innocence, and he was not going to fight the matter with Elizabeth, who was as stubborn as he was.

A composite image of King Henry VIII's daughters from the portrait The Family of King Henry VIII. Mary is on the left and Elizabeth is on the right. Take special note of the "A" pendant around Elizabeth's neck, which once belonged to her mother, Anne Boleyn. Picture acquired through Flickr, created and shared for public use by Kotomic Creations.

By 1548 the young Elizabeth was blossoming into an an ambitious pupil, thanks to the education and attention allotted to her by her loving stepmother, Queen Katherine Parr. Elizabeth choice of literary text to translate as a gift for Katherine Parr may be another early clue that Elizabeth felt positively about her mother. Elizabeth's choice to translate Margaret of Navarre's moralistic The Mirror of The Sinful Soul may have been purposeful, given that Anne Boleyn had been well acquainted with Margaret of Navarre, when she was known as Margaret of Angloume.

The cover to Elizabeth Tudor's translation of The Mirror of the Sinful Soul, which was given as a gift to her beloved stepmother, Katherine Parr in 1548. The young Elizabeth personally embroidered the cover as well, including her stepmothers initials, "KP" in the center. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

Elizabeth and Mary Boleyn 

Alison Weir builds a convincing case that this miniature, previously thought to be Anne Boleyn at 25, is actually Mary Boleyn. As I have long suspected myself, the portrait commonly identified as Mary Boleyn can only be of a woman of noble birth, and Weir puts forth theories as to her identity, (one possibility if Frances Brandon) as well. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

Besides Elizabeth learning about her mother from the usual suspects, (Kat Champernowne-Ashley, Lady Bryan, Matthew Parker, Thomas Cranmer) her uncle by marriage, William Stafford, may have supplied her with information. William Stafford had married Elizabeth's maternal aunt, Anne Boleyn's sister, Mary Boleyn, for love; and he was still employed at court in the years when Elizabeth would have been visiting her father off-and-on.

Though Elizabeth's initial visits to court were few and far between, they may have given Stafford the opportunity to interact with Elizabeth, or even pass information from his wife on to her niece, whom she had not seen since 1534. Mary and Anne were estranged at the time of Anne's fall, but Mary may have had some good memories she wanted to pass on to Elizabeth through her husband or other clandestine methods. Of course, this is all speculation, but in later years Elizabeth's relationship with William Stafford and his second wife, Dorothy, suggests an already established bond that perhaps had its origins in childhood (Weir discusses this topic at length in her book Mary Boleyn: The Mistress of Kings).

Elizabeth Almost Shares Her Mother's Fate 

The Queen's House inside The Tower of London, where Elizabeth Tudor was imprisoned. This part of the Tower is not open to the public, as it is a private residence, and one can only tour the rooms with prior permission. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

In 1554, when Elizabeth was 20, she came very close to sharing the exact same fate as her mother. One can imagine her horror when she was arrested at Ashridge and imprisoned in the Tower by her sister, Queen Mary I for three months on suspicion of treason. Elizabeth, along with four female attendants, (one of which was probably her illegitimate half sister, Ethelreda Malte) was imprisoned in the Queen's lodgings.

A photo of the The Tower of London as it looks today, with the missing Tudor buildings super-imposed and labeled. Picture acquired through Flickr courtesy of That Boleyn Girl.

(Friends to BeingBess Natalie Grueninger and Claire Ridgway have called to my attention that Anne was lodged in quarters close to the White Tower; these were the same apartments in which she stayed before her coronation. Unfortunately, these rooms have since been demolished. Seeing as the primary subject of my research is Elizabeth Tudor, I am always grateful for the feedback I receive from those who study her mother, Anne Boleyn, with equal intensity.)

A photo of the Tower of London as it looks today, with the missing Tudor buildings super-imposed and labeled. Queen Anne Boleyn's apartments are clearly visible in this view. Picture acquired through Flickr courtesy of That Boleyn Girl.
As a prisoner of royal birth Elizabeth was afforded a few privileges. She could take a daily, supervised walk, which unfortunately took her along the wall that overlooked the scaffold site before the House of Ordnance. Thus, if Elizabeth wanted fresh air and the opportunity to stretch her legs, she must repeatedly pass the exact place where her mother died, and where she, Anne Boleyn's daughter, might meet her own end (Weir, 321).

The inner courtyard seen from the wall-walk at The Tower of London. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons, courtesy of Crux. Image public domain.
Years later, when Elizabeth was Queen, she divulged to a French nobleman that she had thought she would die in the Tower, and that she could not bear the thought of an axe hacking at her neck. So, she had resolved herself to ask for a French swordsman instead. That way she, like her mother, could be quickly dispatched (Erikson, cited in Weir, 321).

Elizabeth and Her Carey Cousins

While the young Elizabeth may not have remembered her aunt, and perhaps had only brief encounters, if any, with her uncle in childhood, she did enjoy a special closeness with her Carey cousins. Katherine and Henry Carey were the children of Mary Boleyn. Though their individual paternity is uncertain, they were her first cousins. Their relationship is another shining example that Elizabeth felt positively about her mother; had she believed in her mother's guilt, she would never have wanted to put her reputation at risk by associating with the immediate relatives of a convicted traitor and adulteress.

While Queen Anne had secured the wardship of her nephew Henry Carey and cared for him well during her brief time as Queen, Henry VIII continued to provide for him after her execution. This was not out of any genuine affection, or, as some have suggested, because he was Henry VIII's illegitimate child, but because it was his duty to do so as King. Henry VIII also provided for Katherine Carey, albeit in a much more generous and interested manner. Weir makes a very strong case that it was Katherine, not her brother Henry, who was Henry VIII illegitimate child by Mary Boleyn.

King Henry VIII by Joos van Cleve, circa 1535. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

Elizabeth and her Carey cousins first came into acquaintance in childhood; we can imagine how delighted Elizabeth must have been to have finally made contact with a part of her life that had been forbidden to her for so long. Elizabeth probably first met Henry Carey when he was her father's ward, or possibly a short time after, when he had become a member of the King's household. There is some evidence that Katherine Carey spent some of her formative years time in the household of the Lady Elizabeth (Weir).

The cousins were certainly acquaintances by 1551, since Elizabeth's Hatfield accounts for the years 1551-52 show that she made a monetary gift "at the christening of Mr. Carey's child." (Weir, 259) This child was probably Philadelphia Carey, later the wife of Baron Thomas Scrope. She and her elder sister Katherine Carey-Howard (see my biography of her HERE) were to become two of Queen Elizabeth I's favorite Maids of Honor (Weir, 259).

While one or both of the Carey siblings could have been Queen Elizabeth I's half-siblings (she certainly would have heard the rumors, and likely had formed her own opinion on the matter) Elizabeth could never safely make any overtures that would suggest as much, as this would have been proof of the impediment concerning her mother and father's marriage; Elizabeth herself had been declared illegitimate in 1536 simply because of her father's affair with Mary Boleyn, despite a prior papal dispensation that allowed Henry VIII to marry the sister of his mistress (Weir, 259).

A portrait of Henry Carey, the first husband of Mary Boleyn and most likely the father of Henry Carey, later 1st Baron Hunsdon. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.
Siblings or not, the bond between Elizabeth, Henry and Katherine was unusually strong. After she became Queen, Elizabeth treated them both with a great deal less formality than her other intimates at court, and often laughed and joked with them boisterously, particularity in the case of her saucy cousin, Henry.

A portrait of Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon, maternal first cousin of Queen Elizabeth I. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

Elizabeth's letters are a testament to their bond; in one letter, written in 1579, she referred to Henry Carey as "our cousin of Hunsdon." She also signed letters to Katherine as simply, "your loving cousin."

Upon her accession in November of 1558, Elizabeth immediately began assembling her maternal relatives around her in what I would call a makeshift family. Henry and Katherine Carey were her closest living blood relatives, aside from the problematic Grey sisters, Margaret Douglass, Countess of Lennox, and of course, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scot. The Carey siblings were Elizabeth's only direct connection to her own mother (Mary Boleyn had unfortunately died in 1543). And, unlike most of Elizabeth I's friendships and romantic attachments, her Carey cousins' devotion to her never wavered. Elizabeth never had to question their integrity or loyalty, and she found great peace, and perhaps even a feeling of saftey, because of it.

A detail from a portrait of Margaret Douglass, Countess of Lennox, who was the mother of Henry, Lord Darnley, and thus mother-in-law to Mary, Queen of Scots. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

In addition to the many honors the the hard-working Henry Carey earned while Elizabeth was Queen, he was created 1st Baron Hunsdon. As Lieutenant General of the North, Hunsdon suppressed one of the most serious threats of Elizabeth's reign, the Northern Rebellion of 1569-70. When the rebel army was defeated, with Hunsdon driving Leonard Dacre back over the border, Elizabeth added a personalized note to the congratulatory form letter sent from the state, saying,

"I doubt much, my Harry, whether that the victory were given me more joyed me, or that you were by God appointed the instrument of my glory, and I assure you that, for my country's good, the first might suffice, but for my heart's contentation, the second pleased me...your loving kinswoman, Elizabeth R." (National Archives, cited in Weir, 263)

In addition to quelling the Northern Rebellion, Henry Carey, or Baron Hunsdon, was part of all the major political and military events of Queen Elizabeth's reign; most notably he was a commissioner at the Queen of Scots' trial, and commanded a force of over 30,000 at Tilbury Fort in 1588, where Queen Elizabeth had sent him "for the defense and security of our royal person."

A romantic interpretation of Queen Elizabeth I addressing her troops at Tilbury. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

Still, Queen Elizabeth, not one for sycophancy like her predecessors, only gave accolades to those that had earned it. One of the many ways she kept her celebrated cousin Hunsdon in check was by never granting him his long-sought-after hereditary titles, Earl of Ormond and of Wiltshire. Hunsdon laid claim to these titles through their shared grandfather, Thomas Boleyn (Weir, 262).

While Henry Carey was a leading figure in the public life of Queen Elizabeth, his sister Katherine Carey, or Lady Knollys, got to see the private side of their cousin. This was a privilege allotted to few. Katherine and Elizabeth were already very close by the time Mary Tudor sat upon the throne. Katherine and her husband Francis Knollys, an outspoken man whose religious convictions would later lead him to become a champion in Parliament for the Puritan movement, felt it best to flee abroad with their children rather than run the risk of persecution (Read my bio of Sir Francis Knollys HERE).

Elizabeth mourned her separation from her dear cousin, signing her farewell letter to her "cor rotto", or, "broken heart." (Weir, 270) Elizabeth must have experienced great fear and sadness, and perhaps a sense of betrayal, as the majority of the people she had trusted (such as the Knollys' and the Stafford's) fled abroad. As the sister of the Queen, Elizabeth was very closely monitored and never could have escaped herself, even if she had wanted to. Elizabeth may have permitted the dark thought that her sister's reign of terror would only continue, and that she would never see her friends and family again.

A portrait of a pregnant lady with her dog, most likely Katherine Carey-Knollys, by Steven van der Muelen c. 1562.

Upon Elizabeth I's accession, the Knollys' returned to England. Katherine was made a Lady of the Privy Chamber, her husband a Privy Councilor and Vice Chamberlain of the Queen's household, as well as Governor of Portsmouth. 

The French Ambassador Fenelon observed that Queen Elizabeth "loved Lady Knollys above all other women in the world." Besides the shared Boleyn/Howard blood running through their veins, Elizabeth was certainly drawn to Katherine's personality; she was reported to have been graced with "wit and council sound" and "a mind so clean [and] devoid of guile."

Upon the death of Elizabeth's childhood governess and surrogate mother figure, Katherine Champernowne-Astley in 1595, Katherine Carey-Knollys succeeded her as Chief Lady of the Bedchamber.

Katherine's devotion to the Queen and her duties as a wife and mother were often at odds; Elizabeth could not bear to part with her cousin for any substantial length of time, and Francis was just as attached to his wife as the Queen was. Elizabeth often refused Katherine and Francis's requests to visit one another.

The tomb effigy of Katherine Carey-Knollys' husband, Sir Francis Knollys. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

In the end it was Elizabeth who was with Katherine Carey-Knollys when she died in 1569 at Hampton Court Palace while Francis was away on state business. Both would mourn Katherine's passing with equal intensity. Knollys lamented, "my case is pitiful" and that he was "distracted with sorrow." Queen Elizabeth assisted with her cousin's funeral, paying more for her burial that she ever had for any other relation; the sum reached the modern equivalent of 111,300 pounds!

Even the trappings of the memorial service were lavish, as there was a dispute between the clergy of Westminster Abbey and the College of Arms over who got to keep the furniture (Weir, 272).

Queen Elizabeth: Her Mother's Daughter

As we have seen, there is ample evidence which strongly suggests that Queen Elizabeth I felt positively about her mother. Still, many people continue to try to counter the evidence. Some historians, like David Starkey, believe that Elizabeth and her father has a mostly positive relationship. With respect to Mr. Starkey and his great contribution to researching Tudor history, I find this to be an over-generalization of a very complicated dynamic, and an examination of their relationship if worthy of its own article!

Why would Elizabeth, many have wondered, constantly assert that she was "a lion's cub" and her "father's daughter" etc., if she believed her father had deprived her of a mother by unlawfully ending her life on trumped-up charges? And why didn't Elizabeth I, like her sister Mary, push to have her mother's reputation restored and her parent's marriage declared legitimate?

Elizabeth I's half-sister, Mary Tudor. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

The answer to the first question is very simple: Elizabeth was first and foremost a survivor, and her choice to stress her connections to her father, rather than to her mother was deliberate and strategic. With so much doubt cast on Elizabeth I's paternity, it was essential that she continue to stress, throughout her life, that she was the daughter of King Henry VIII. And, while her father was royal, a distinction that con-notated prestige and respectability, her mother was the daughter of an upwardly mobile nobleman, one of King Henry VIII's "new men." There was no reason to stress a connection that would politically gain her nothing.

While Elizabeth constantly stressed her paternity, she also did not hide away her pride in being her mother's daughter; in fact, she sometimes flaunted it! On her way to her coronation in 1559, Elizabeth passed through a triumphal arch in Gracechurch street during her progress through London to Westminster Abbey. One of the spectacles displayed en route in her honor was a very blatant tribute to both her father and her mother. The "Pageant of the Roses" featured life-size effigies of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn seated together on a dais:
"King Henry the Eighth with a white and red rose [Tudor rose] in front of him, with the pomegranate [symbol of their fertility, resulting in the birth of Elizabeth] between the, and Queen Anne Boleyn, mother of the present Queen, with a gold crown on the head and a gilt scepter, and in front of her small branches of little roses [and] the coat of arms and device of the same Queen." (Foxe, quoted in Weir, 322)
Above the effigy's of King Henry VIII and Queen Anne sat Elizabeth I's own figure.  There is also evidence to support the theory that the lighter crown worn by Queen Elizabeth after her coronation may have been the one originally made for her mother in 1533 (Arnold, cited in Weir, 322).

A rendering (probably by an eye-witness) of the coronation procession of Queen Elizabeth I, c.1559. Sketch from a document in the College of Arms. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

Since Queen Elizabeth's decision to stress her paternity rather than play up the connections to her mother is understandable, the harder question to answer is why did Queen Elizabeth not do as Mary had done and reverse the legal rulings concerning her parents marriage?

There was, in fact, much debate early in Elizabeth's reign as to whether she should do as her sister had done. It would have been unwise to bring up and dissect old controversies surrounding her mother's conviction and execution; doing so would have certainly caused not only an uproar in England but also Catholic Europe, who watched Queen Elizabeth and all her decisions with great interest. To have re-hashed the past may have cast further doubt on the already precarious Tudor dynasty and Elizabeth's right to rule.

Queen Elizabeth ultimately chose to put aside her personal belief that her mother was innocent, instead favoring a more reasonable approach, which would help to ensure the stability of her realm. Instead of ordering a full-blown investigation, Queen Elizabeth took the advice of her Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, Sir Nicholas Bacon, who had pointed out to her that she was the lawful heiress to the throne of England under Henry VIII's 1544 Act of Succession, and no further validation was needed.

A copy of another relevant document, the Oath of Allegiance from 1534, which required all of Henry VIII's subjects to swear an oath that they believed in the validity of their King's marriage to Anne Boleyn. This oath would also by default also confirm their belief in the Princess Elizabeth's legitimacy. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.
Parliament drew up a sparsely worded, to-the-point statute confirming Elizabeth's right to be Queen of England. Elizabeth then had a separate act passed declaring that she was her mother's sole heiress, enabling her to inherit her mother's property, which had been forfeited to the crown upon her death (Ridley, Neale, cited in Weir).

Elizabeth did not move her mother's body from the Royal Chapel in the Tower for the very same reason: she did not want to court controversy. Also, there was the problematic technicality that Anne Boleyn had died in the Catholic faith, having been a reformer of the Catholic religion, and not a Lutheran as she is sometimes called. It would have been quite difficult to determine the appropriate funeral rites for re-burial.


Queen Elizabeth never forgot the grisly death of her mother at the hands of her father, and she often referenced the tragedy that had come to pass, even if it was somewhat indirectly. In 1561 Elizabeth told a Scottish envoy that marital conflicts and disastrous ends in her own family (without referencing her mother specifically) had led her to doubt the stability of the institution of marriage, saying,

"Some say that this marriage was unlawful, some that one was a bastard, some other, to and fro, as they favored or misliked. So many doubts of marriage was in all hands that I stand [in] awe myself to enter into marriage, fearing the controversy." (Weir, 320)


A portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn at Hever Catle, the Boleyn family ancestral home. This portrait is probably a copy of a now-lost 1534 original. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

In 1565, the Queen expressed her fear that, if she were to marry, her husband might "carry out some evil wish, if he had one," and that she "hated the idea of marriage every day more, for reasons which she would not divulge to a twin soul, if she had one, much less a living creature." (First quote delivered to a French diplomat, recorded in Relations Politiques de France avec l'Ecosse, quoted in Weir, 320-21. Second quote from the Spanish Calender, quoted in Weir, 321.)

The Rainbow Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I, the eternal Virgin Queen, c. 1600-02. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

Even Archbishop Parker could not sway her opinions on marriage; when he had spoken to the new Queen, per the request of William Cecil, about the benefits of the estate of matrimony, Parker reported her taking the occasion, "to speak in bitterness of the holy estate of matrimony." He told Cecil that "he was in a horror to hear her." (Weir, 320)

A detail of a portrait of Archbishop Matthew Parker. To learn more about him, read my biography on him HERE. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

Elizabeth's aversion to violence, (a most un-Tudor-like quality) in particular decapitation, especially when it had to do with relations, (such as Thomas Howard, 4rth Duke of Norfolk and Mary Stuart) was probably due in large part to her childhood traumas and her own near-death experience in the reign of her sister. Queen Elizabeth always made a great effort to spare her people of the frequent violence she had personally experienced, and that they had endured under the rules of her family members.

A portrait of Mary,Queen of Scots, which resided in the Blairs museum. Queen Elizabeth I had to make the very difficult decision to execute her cousin for actively plotting against her life and planning to steal the throne of England. However guilty Mary Stuart may have been, Elizabeth I experienced genuine distress over ordering her execution. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

After Elizabeth I was excommunicated by the Pope in 1572, she had Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, track down and study the papal bull of dispensation from 1528 that had sanctioned her parents marriage. Queen Elizabeth wanted to have the document on file in case she needed to prove her legitimacy, beyond a shadow of a doubt, to Catholic Europe.

SEMPER EADEM and Shared Heraldry

Another way we know how Elizabeth felt about her mother was that she chose to adopt her mothers heraldic emblem and motto, and display it publicly. Queen Elizabeth used one of her mother's motto's, SEMPER EADEM, which is Latin for the phrase, "Always the Same."

She also adopted her heraldic badge of a crowned falcon upon a tree stump, surrounded with Tudor roses. The falcon is the heraldic charge standing for "perseverance," a quality that both Elizabeth and Anne embodied.

The crowned falcon badge of Queen Anne Boleyn, later adopted by her daughter, Queen Elizabeth I. In addition to adopting her mothers heraldic badge, Elizabeth also used her motto, SEMPER EADEM, which is Latin for "Always the Same." Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

At St. Margaret's Church in Norfolk, the tympanum, dating from 1587, displays the Tudor arms and Queen Elizabeth I's achievements. If you look closely, you will be able to see the crowned falcon badge painted below the Tudor family heraldic shield!

This tympanum is part of the lavishly painted interior of St. Margaret's Church, Norfolk. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain courtesy of Evelyn Simak.
Amongst Queen Elizabeth I's many virginals, there is a set one that bears the Boleyn coat of arms, and may have once belonged to Anne Boleyn herself. The pair of virginals are now part of the collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London (Weir, 324).

The Chequers Ring

30 years after a ten- or eleven-year-old Elizabeth had defiantly donned her mother's "A" initial pendant in the portrait The Family of King Henry VIII, she commissioned a unique piece of jewelry herself. Even if you disregard all the other evidence presented, this ring alone proves, beyond a shadow of a doubt, that Elizabeth believed in her mother's innocence.

The exterior of Queen Elizabeth's locket-ring, commissioned in 1575 and now known as the Chequers ring. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

In 1575, Queen Elizabeth I commissioned a gold locket ring, which was covered in diamonds that formed the letter "E", for Elizabeth, and had the letter "R", for Regina in blue enamel. The locket's secret compartment opened to reveal the painted miniature reliefs of her mother and herself, side by side.

The interior of the Chequers ring, commissioned in 1575 and worn by Queen Elizabeth I until her death. The interior reveals the cameo reliefs of Elizabeth I and her mother, Anne Boleyn. Picture acquired through Wikimedia Commons. Image public domain.

From 1575 until her death, Queen Elizabeth I never took the ring off of her finger; it only left her person after when it was taken to her successor, James VI of Scotland, as proof of her death. The ring is now in the Chequers collection, from which it derived it's name, and is currently on display in the new exhibit, Gold: Power and Allure.

If you have the opportunity, I hope you will go and see this stunning testament to the eternal bond between England's greatest monarch, Elizabeth I, and the enigmatic mother she barely knew, Queen Anne Boleyn.

Sources

Weir, Alison. Mary Boleyn: The Mistress of Kings. New York: Ballantine Books, 2011. Print.

Weir, Alison. The Lady in The Tower. New York: Ballantine Books, 2010. Print.

Weir, Alison. Henry VIII: The King and His Court. New York: Ballantine Books, 2007. Print

Denny, Joanna. Anne Boleyn: A New Life of England's Tragic Queen. De Capo Press, 2006. Print.
(Please note this biography has been scrutinized as being too partial to Anne; Denny never says a single bad thing about her subject, and her work is considered extremely biased. That being said, I agree with the way Denny synthesizes the evidence at hand, and I do like that she cites many primary sources which are often overlooked.)

111 comments:

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  2. An interesting read. I liked the reference to the relationship that could have existed between the teenage Elizabeth and her mother, had things been different - that is certainly a relationship I would have like to have seen documented! I'm sure there would have been some wonderful arguements and wonderful discussions between the two.

    ReplyDelete
  3. A wonderful post, Ashlie, and I too believe that Elizabeth was very much her mother's daughter. I'd love to think that she grilled her Boleyn relatives about her mother in private!
    One thing I don't agree with is the idea that Mary I imprisoned Elizabeth in the royal apartments out of spite. In my opinion, it was more to do with Elizabeth's status as the daughter of Henry VIII,albeit 'illegitimate' in Mary's eyes. It's hard to know!

    ReplyDelete
  4. yes, of course she loved her mother , she went out of her way to show her love

    ReplyDelete
  5. Wonderful article Ashlie! You have clearly spent a lot of time and energy researching this piece and are obviously passionate about it. I did though just want to mention that the Queen's House that survives today is actually not where Anne Boleyn was imprisoned. She spent her incarceration in the same apartments that she slept in prior to her coronation and these sadly have long since disappeared. They once stood near the White Tower and you can get an idea of what they would have looked like in this wonderful video, I think you will enjoy it. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HZcYI2D2a9s. Thanks again for an interesting post! Natalie

    ReplyDelete
  6. Thank you to everyone who has taken the time to read and comment on this article so far! I was, indeed, very passionate about this project and I knew my readers would be interested in this topic, as well!

    As we have all seen, Elizabeth I fans and Anne Boleyn fans are equally passionate, and continually support one another, for which I am very grateful!

    @Susan Abernethy Thank you for reading this post; your recent support on Twitter has been very much appreciated!

    @Lorelai Hart I am glad you liked my personal theory about Anne and Elizabeth's relationship, had Queen Anne been fortunate enough to be a part of her daughter's life into adulthood. In my personal experience, mothers and daughters who are very similar are simultaneously best friends and worthy adversaries! :)

    @crftyduchess Thank you for visiting BeingBess! I am so glad you found the post interesting!

    @Claire Ridgway Your opinion always means so much! I am glad you shared your view on Mary I's reasons for putting Elizabeth in the Queen's Lodgings; it is certainly true that Elizabeth I would have had to be kept in apartments suitable for her status (of which there were but a few appropriate choices within the Tower).
    Please know that I don't dislike Mary, in fact, I rather feel for her, as she was not able to take her trauma in stride the way Elizabeth did.

    @Michelle BROWN I could not agree with you more!

    @Natalie Thank you for always supporting my work! I am so glad you have brought this discrepancy to my attention; I will go back and look at my research and follow up on this; in the meantime I have taken the questionable information out of the article.
    It is thanks to the feedback of this online Tudor community that my work continues to improve. And thank you for the Youtube link! I look forward to viewing it! :)

    ReplyDelete
  7. Hi,

    I have enjoyed a lot reading the article! I wanted to ask you if Anne Boleyn really entered to the Tower through the Traitor's Gate, as I have often read that she didn't. Also, I cannot give the evidence because I read it several years before, but somewhere it was said that at her coronation Elizabeth had at one side her mother's cross and her bible.

    Thank you for your article!

    Raisa.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Sorry to interrupt here...but I think it's unlikely that Anne entered the Tower of London via Traitor's Gate. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries it was usual for kings and queens to use the Court Gate in the Byward Tower, the private entrance to the Tower of London from Tower Wharf. If you're interested, I have written an article about this exact topic here: Anne Boleyn's Arrival at the Tower of London. Enjoy!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. MY NAME IS VICKY AND I AM FROM SAN DIEGO CALIFORNIA,I WANT TO SHARE A
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      Delete
  9. Yes, both Anne Boleyn and Elizabeth were taken to the Tower via the Court Gate, not Traitors' Gate. Also there's a bit of confusion re where Elizabeth was imprisoned. Like her mother before her, she was imprisoned in the royal apartments of the royal palace which no longer stands today, not the Queen's House which was built c1540, after Anne's death. The Victorians made an Anne Boleyn room in the Queen's House and started that tradition, but it's not true and sadly it's impossible to see their prison today.

    ReplyDelete
  10. I like your blog very much! I have a german Blog about her mother Anne Boleyn. Maybe you like to get Partners for blogs. :)
    So if you are interestet, you could watch: http://lady-greensleeves.blogspot.de/

    Greetz

    ReplyDelete
  11. A big thank you to Anne Boleyn aficionado's Claire and Natalie for giving feedback on Elizabeth and Anne's entrance into the Tower, and their accomodations!

    As my primary subject of research is Elizabeth Tudor, not Anne, I always appreciate the help of those who study her with as much dedication as I give to her daughter.

    The last time I was at the Tower (which was admittedly a long time ago) the tour guide gave some improper information concerning the Traitor's gate; I fear I was subjected what is known in my field as "guide lore."
    Amends will be made.

    @Kat von Kartoona thank you for your kind compliment! I am looking at your blog at the moment, and though my understanding of German is minimal, I have been able to read some of it! I look forward to talking with you more in the future!

    ReplyDelete
  12. Thank you Ashley, I became completely absorbed in this article. Is there any speculation that the other lady in the chequers ring is a young Elizabeth? I really want it to be Anne so I need to put this thought to bed beyond all doubt!
    I am hoping to visit Greys Court soon.Do you know if Francis,Katherine and their children spent much time there?
    Keep up the good work. Debbie x

    ReplyDelete
  13. Thank you, Debbie, for taking the time to read my article. I am so glad you became "completely absorbed" in it! I was passionate about putting this article together, since I know it is a topic most Tudor and Elizabethan enthusiasts are fascinated with.

    To answer your first question, most historians and 16th century portrait experts agree that the cameo opposite Elizabeth I's in the Chequers ring IS Anne Boleyn; however, there is no way to state beyond a shadow of a doubt that it is her, so we may never know for sure. As I myself work in museums, I can tell you that very rarely can we say "this is definitely..." or, "this definitely belonged to..." Usually we say, 'Most likely."

    Some have taken the color of the cameo portraits hair as a sign that it is not Anne, but it has been concluded that the paint color likely faded over time, and in any case, we now know that Anne Boleyn probably had very dark brown hair with a reddish tinge, not jet black as it is usually depicted in popular culture.

    I hope that helps!

    I am so glad you are planning a visit to Greys Court! To answer your second question, Rotherfield Greys was originally granted to Sir Francis Knollys, but an Act of Parliament 1545-46 made his wife, Katherine Carey-Knollys the joint tenant. They did spend some time there together at the beginning of their marriage, and sporadically afterwards, but much of Katherine's existence was at court.

    This was unusual; most women in Queen Elizabeth's retinue who got married and had children left the court permanently, but because of Elizabeth's closeness with her cousin, Katherine stayed on.

    For more on the claustrophobic Queen Elizabeth/Katherine Carey-Knollys/Francis Knollys relationship dynamic, I recommend reading the final chapters of "Mary Boleyn: The Mistress of Kings." My copy is lent out at the moment so I do not have it on hand, but I remember there being a great deal more about the time Francis and Katherine spent together versus the time they didn't.

    What we do know from letters and references is Katherine and Francis loved one another very much, and that they would have liked to have been together more often. Still, they managed to conceive a total of 15 children, so they must have found SOME time!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Ashlie, thank you so much for your detailed response and recommendation for further reading, you are so very knowledgeable. I am going to pop an email to you so that we can chat for longer! Debbie x

      Delete
    2. MY NAME IS VICKY AND I AM FROM SAN DIEGO CALIFORNIA,I WANT TO SHARE A
      TESTIMONY OF A SPELL CASTER WHO REUNITE MY MARRIAGE WENT HIS POWERFUL SPELL
      CASTER.AND I ALSO WANT TO USE THIS OPPORTUNITIES TO WARN THOSE OUT THERE
      READING FAKE TESTIMONY ON SOCIAL NETWORK.BECAUSE I HAVE BEEN SCAMMED BY SO
      MANY FAKE SPELL CASTER. BE CAREFUL HERE BECAUSE NOBODY CAN HELP YOU HERE OR
      EVEN SUGGEST HOW YOU CAN GET YOUR EX OR LOVER BACK, TESTIMONIES OF MOST
      SPELL CASTER HERE MUST BE IGNORE.BECAUSE MOST OF THEM ARE SCAM I MEAN REAL
      SCAM WHICH I WAS A VICTIM OF BEFORE, I GOT RIPPED OF THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS
      BECAUSE I WAS SO ANXIOUS TO GET MY HUSBAND BACK AFTER HE LEFT ME FOR OVER 2
      YEARS WITH MY 7 YEARS OLD SON HARRY,I HAVE APPLIED TO 5 DIFFERENT SPELL
      CASTER HERE AND ALL TO NO AVAIL THEY ALL ASK FOR SAME THING SEND YOUR NAME
      YOUR EX NAME ADDRESS AND PICTURE PHONE NUMBER ETC WHICH I DID OVER AND OVER
      AGAIN AND MOST OF THEM WERE FROM WEST AFRICA UNTIL I SAW A POST ABOUT DR
      ALEXZANDER SPELL AND I DECIDED TO GAVE HIM MY LAST TRAIL.HE ASK ME FOUR
      THINGS MY REAL NAME,MY EX AND MY EX MOTHER NAME AND SAID MY EX WILL COME
      BACK IN 48HOURS, I HAVE SPEND ON SPELL CASTING AND NOTHING HAVE WORK FOR ME
      AFTER 2 DAYS I WAS THINKING ABOUT HOW MUCH I HAVE LOST SO FAR SO I SAID LET
      ME GIVE HIM A TRY SO I CALLED HIM AGAIN AND SEND MY REAL NAME,MY EX AND MY
      EX MOTHER NAME. BECAUSE I SWEAR IT WAS MY LAST TRY SO I WAS WAITING AS HE
      TOLD ME TO WAIT TILL NEXT DAY AND I COULD NOT SLEEP THAT NIGHT BECAUSE I
      REALLY LOVE MY HUSBAND AND WANT HIM BACK SO MUCH, THAT DAY I SAW MY HUSBAND
      WAS ONLINE ON FACEBOOK AND HE SAID HI AT FIRST I WAS SHOCK BECAUSE HE
      NEVER TALK WITH ME FOR THE PAST A YEAR AND 11 MONTH NOW I DID NOT REPLY
      AGAIN HE SAID ARE YOU THERE? I QUICKLY REPLY YES AND HE SAID CAN WE SEE
      TOMORROW I SAID YES AND HE WENT OFF-LINE I WAS CONFUSED I TRY TO CHAT WITH
      HIM AGAIN BUT HE WAS NO MORE ON LINE I COULD NOT SLEEP THAT NIGHT AS I WAS
      WONDERING WHAT HE IS GOING TO SAY, BY 9.AM THE NEXT MORNING HE GAVE ME A
      MISS CALL I DECIDED NOT TO CALL BACK AS I WAS STILL ON SHOCK AGAIN HE
      CALLED AND I PICK HE SAID CAN WE SEE AFTER WORK TODAY I SAID YES SO HE END
      THE CALL. IMMEDIATELY I GOT OFF WORK HE CALL ME AND WE MEET AND NOW WE ARE
      BACK AGAIN I CALL DR ALEXZANDER THE NEXT DAY THANKING HIM FOR WHAT HE HAS
      DONE IN FACT I STILL CALL HIM AND THANK HIM AS MY LIFE WAS NOT COMPLETE
      WITHOUT MY HUSBAND PLEASE BE CAREFUL HERE I HAVE BEEN SCAM THOUSANDS OF
      DOLLARS IF YOU WANT A TRUE LOVE SPELL THEN CONTACT..alexzanderhightemple@gmail.com or check him on his website.Alexzanderhightemple-com.webs.com

      Delete
  14. Thank you so much for such an informative and interesting article! I loved how detailed it was and the extent to which it covered all the issues. I was fascinated! I stumbled across the Chequers ring on the internet and thought it would be a perfect object for a story I'm writing (not seriously, just for a school English project). I was wondering if anyone has any ideas about who painted the portraits? Was the artist who painted Elizabeth the same one who painted Anne? I wanted to have my main character find the ring and paint the portrait of Elizabeth as a gift, but seeing as the ring dates from 1575 and my story is set in 1565 this might be a bit of an issue! Thanks again for one of the best articles I've read on the era!

    ReplyDelete
  15. @Zara Kesterton You are incredibly kind to call this "one of the best articles I've read on the era!" That is one of the nicest compliments I have ever received! I thoroughly enjoyed researching and writing this article.

    And your idea for a story revolving around the Chequers ring is fantastic! As to your question, I have never been able to find any conclusive evidence as to who painted/made the Chequers ring. If any of my other readers know, I hope they will leave a comment here...

    Thank you for taking the time to read this article; Best of luck in writing your story!

    ReplyDelete
  16. I really enjoyed this post Ashlie, it was so thorough and interesting, with so much passion and detail, thank you for it.
    I wonder if the ring's images were painted by Lavinia Teerlinc, Elizabeth's favourite miniaturist- the faces do look similar to some of her others. It was commissioned around 1575 and Teerlinc died in June 1576 so it could be one of her final works.

    ReplyDelete
  17. How funny, I've just seen you did a blog post on Teerlinc 5 days before I wrote this- great minds obviously think alike! :)

    ReplyDelete
  18. How interesting! Thank you so much. Lavinia Teerlinc sounds like a fascinating person, I'd love to think that it was one of her last works. I'll look out for any more information!

    ReplyDelete
  19. Amy and Zara, thank you so much for taking the time to read this lengthy article and commenting! I am intrigued by your Lavinia Teerlinc theory; I would like to think that one remarkable woman assisted another in honoring yet another remarkable woman's memory!

    Let me know if either of you find anything else related to this hypothesis; I value your opinions!

    Semper Eadem,

    Ashlie

    ReplyDelete
  20. How interesting! Thank you so much. Lavinia Teerlinc sounds like a fascinating person, I'd love to think that it was one of her last works. I'll look out for any more information! Just a quick question, was the funeral in oshawa?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you for taking the time to read about Lavinia Teerlinc; I too, would like the chequers ring cameos to be her last work!

      Delete
  21. Hi Ashlie

    I noticed you recently left a comment on The Anglophile blog about Elizabeth I's Chequers ring. Thanks for doing that. The Anglophile had actually lifted the image from my blog post, where I did write that it was thought to be an image of Anne Boleyn. Not sure why it was reported otherwise, but thank you for correcting it for me! You might be interested in reading the original post as it was about a talk by author Alison Weir. It's at http://happyandgloriousblog.blogspot.co.uk/2013/02/the-royal-image-alison-weir-on.html

    I just found your blog through that comment you left. It looks very impressive. I will add you to my blogroll on my site.

    Keep up the good work!

    Alex David

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Alex David,

      I am sorry to hear that the image the Anglophile used was lifted from your site without permission or proper credit. I am delighted that you saw my correction on the Anglophile's blog, and that you took the time to follow up and visit BeingBess!

      Thank you for sharing this link with me; who doesn't love Alison Weir? I have read every book of hers to date, and am looking forward to her biography on Elizabeth of York. I have just opened your blog post and I am about to read it now; I will leave a comment on your site as soon as I have finished!

      You are added to my blogroll, as well!

      SEMPER EADEM,

      Ashlie

      Delete
  22. Thank you so much for this interesting and informative piece. When researching, did you come across one Bridget Copley, of Spixworth Hall? She is listed as being governess to Elizabeth. I have come across this reference in researching the poet Robert Southwell. Bridget Copley was mother to the poet. I would be grateful for any information you have come across relating to Elizabeth's time in Norfolk, especially at Horsham St Faiths. norma.procter@madasafish.com

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you for taking the time to read this (lengthy) article, and for leaving positive feedback, Norma Procter! Sadly, I did not come across Bridget Copley of Spixworth Hall in my research, but perhaps if you told be a little more I can go on a search and see what I can find.

      What document did you find her referenced in when you were researching Robert Southwell? And do you know what her tenure was in Elizabeth Tudor's household? I have no doubt that she served in some capacity, but I am thinking that perhaps her position may have been mislabeled posthumously. Of course, I could be completely wrong! I will do some digging; any further information you could give me would be greatly appreciated. Good luck in your research!

      Delete
  23. sadly queen elizerbeth died and anne died and so i wanna say sorry i love people no matter what i still love or like them they save people and nice to people and i wanna be apart and i know anne and elzierbeth and all for my love all in my heart pls reply back

    ReplyDelete
  24. Great article! i found it soo interesting i often forget to look into elizabeth, that was a great look on how she might have thought of anne boleyn

    ReplyDelete
  25. Although this is a nice piece of work, I'm glad you used the term "conjecture" because you've certainly used it frequently! And Dr David Starkey is an extremely well respected historian, well versed in the ways of the Tudors. You'd do well to consult his works a lot more, rather than focusing so much on Alison Weir. Can I also correct you on your use of surnames - Katherine Carey was never known as Carey-Knollys - always as Lady Knollys. The British do not use their maiden names in conjuncture with their married names - this is an American trait.

    ReplyDelete
  26. You post had me a bit confused. Katherine Champernowne-Astley in died in 1565, not 1595 as you have stated. You indicated that Katherine Carey-Knollys succeeded her as Chief Lady of the Bedchamber, however Katherine Knolls died in in 1569, so this could not have happened.

    ReplyDelete
  27. Carey-Knollys. Ashley-Champernowne. We just don't do this in England! I know that Americans link every surname they have ever possessed but if you're writing about English historical characters then please get their names correct. We didn't do it then and we don't do it now!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. As a historian, I know very well that contemporary sources do not use hyphenated names, but I do use them sometimes on my blog for clarity - a lot of people just starting to learn Tudor/Elizabethan history are unfamiliar with the "characters" at play and their families. I believe that this helps them to know who the people were (and both names that may show up in the sources) before and after marriage. For example, much is written on Katherine Carey, and on Katherine Knollys; I want people new to the history to understand that this is the same person, especially since there are so many Katherines, Thomases, Henrys, Elizabeths, etc. in the sixteenth century. I hope that addresses your issue!

      Delete
  28. I have been in bondage ever since my ex Husband leave me for another woman, It was really hell for me and everybody told me to forget about him but i could not because i love him so much,I cried and sobbed every day, until it got so bad that I reached out to the Internet for help.And i saw a testimony of a spell caster who help a girl called cynthia get he ex boyfriend back, and i said let me give it a try,but I never believe because i thought all spell caster is fake,so i decided to contact him for help and he cast a love spell for me which i use in getting my Husband back and now i am a happy woman.For what you have done for me,i will not stop to share your goodness to people out there for the good work you are doing.Once again thank you Dr.Ofemo You are truly talented and gifted. If you need his help you can reach him on his email address:drofemospelltempl@gmail.com i believed him and today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the power to bring lovers back. because i am now happy with my husband.Try the Dr.Ofemo today he we be the key or answer to your problem. Here's his contact email drofemospelltemple@yahoo.com or his cell number +2348163387496 his web/site http://drofemospelltemple.wix.com/dr-ofemo

    ReplyDelete
  29. I have been in bondage ever since my ex Husband leave me for another woman, It was really hell for me and everybody told me to forget about him but i could not because i love him so much,I cried and sobbed every day, until it got so bad that I reached out to the Internet for help.And i saw a testimony of a spell caster who help a girl called cynthia get he ex boyfriend back, and i said let me give it a try,but I never believe because i thought all spell caster is fake,so i decided to contact him for help and he cast a love spell for me which i use in getting my Husband back and now i am a happy woman.For what you have done for me,i will not stop to share your goodness to people out there for the good work you are doing.Once again thank you Dr.Ofemo You are truly talented and gifted. If you need his help you can reach him on his email address:drofemospelltempl@gmail.com i believed him and today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the power to bring lovers back. because i am now happy with my husband.Try the Dr.Ofemo today he we be the key or answer to your problem. Here's his contact email drofemospelltemple@yahoo.com or his cell number +2348163387496 his web/site http://drofemospelltemple.wix.com/dr-ofemo.

    ReplyDelete
  30. there is no way to state beyond a shadow of a doubt that it is her, so we may never know for sure. As I myself work in museums, ordering cheques

    ReplyDelete
  31. "" HOW I GOT MY EX BOYFRIEND BACK""

    I want to use this great medium to thank LORD MASUKA for helping me to get my boyfriend back after he dumped me for 3 months .My boyfriend breakup with me because he see another girl at his church and told me he is no longer want me and live me in pain and heart break.I seek for help on the internet and i saw so many good talk about this great spell caster LORD MASUKA of lordmasukaspelltemple@hotmail.com and i contacted him also and explain my problems to him and he cast a love spell for me which i use to get back my boyfriend within the period of 3 days and i am so grateful to him for the good work he has done for me,that is why i also want to let everyone who is in need of help out there to also seek help from him so he can help.His email is lordmasukaspelltemple@hotmail.com or call +2347053105287 or view and contact him on his website:
    http://lordmasukaspelltem.wix.com/lordmasuka you can contact for any kind of help and he will help you. And you can also reach him on facebook Harry Masuka or Skype Lord masuka

    ReplyDelete
  32. When my boyfriend and I broke up I was completely lost. A good friend of mine recommended that I have a love spell cast to bring him back by http://ancientfathersandmothers.com I thought that idea of a love spell was strange, but was willing to give it a shot. When I contacted Dr. Lee for the first time I was scared because I was not sure if what they did went against my religion. He assured me that they only use Ancient traditional magic spell which is safe and has no side effects. I felt a little better and decided to do the return lover spell. I did not think that it would work considering my ex and his whole family hated me and told me never to contact them again. Within a week he showed up at my job and brought flowers to me. He said that he missed me more than he could describe and decided that the good out weighed the bad. We got back together and our relationship has been better the second time around. I have to give http://ancientfathersandmothers.com all of the credit in the world for helping us get back to a better place than where we began. The new found love that he has for me is incredible and I can’t wait to see what the future holds!

    ReplyDelete
  33. For Real How to get your ex lover back and be happy again, My Name is Bartley Whitley I never believed in love spells or magic until i met this spell caster once when i went to Indian in June last year on a business summit i meet a friend of mine called Mariana she introduce me to a man called Dr Shiva at hinduspelltemple@yahoo.com that he can help me get my lover back, Dr Shiva is powerful he could help you cast a spells to bring back your love s gone misbehaving lover looking for some one to love you bring back lost money and magic money spell or spell for a good job am now happy & a living testimony because the man i had wanted to marry left me 4weeks before our wedding and my life was upside down because our relationship has been on for 3 year i really loved him, but his mother was against me and he had no good paying job so when i met this spell caster, i told him what happened and explained the situation of things to him at first i was undecided, skeptical and doubtful, but i just gave it a try and in 6 days when i returned to back to Canada my boyfriend (is now my husband ) he called me by himself and came to me apologizing that everything had been settled with his mom and family and he got a new job interview so we should get married i didn’t believe it because the spell caster only asked for my name and my boyfriends name and all i wanted him to do well we are happily married now and we are expecting our little kid and my husband also got a new job and our lives became much better in case anyone needs the spell caster for some help contact him today via his email address at: hinduspelltemple@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete


  34. I'm Pamela Scott from Las Vegas,USA.I can’t hide this amazing testimony that took place in my life. A powerful spell-caster named Dr. Candova brought back my love who left me and run off with another woman while I was six months pregnant,it was a painful period for me because i loved him so much an didn't want to lose him,so i contact Dr.Candova via email: CANDOVALOVESPELL@GMAIL.COM and whatsapp him with his number +2348131612153,he cast a spell for me and behold my husband was back to me and we are now a happy family,contact him to fix your relationship because he did it for me and i completely trust Dr.Candova to fix your relationship,Thank you Dr.Candova for this.

    ReplyDelete
  35. Midred Jackson Says

    Am giving this testimony cos am happy

    My name is Midred Jackson from Michigan I never believed in love spells or magic until i met this spell caster once. when i went to Africa in November 28th 2015 last year on a business summit. i ment a man called DR OTIS DARKO. He is powerful he could help you cast a spells to bring back my love’s gone,misbehaving lover looking for some one to love you, bring back lost money and magic money spell or spell for a good job.i’m now happy & a living testimony cos the man i had wanted to marry left me 3 weeks before our wedding and my life was upside down cos our relationship has been on for 2 years… i really loved him, but his mother was against me and he had no good paying job. so when i met this spell caster, i told him what happened and explained the situation of things to him..at first i was undecided,skeptical and doubtful, but i just gave it a try. and in 6 days when i returned to taxes, my boyfriend (is now my husband ) he called me by himself and came to me apologizing that everything had been settled with his mom and family and he got a new job interview so we should get married..i didn’t believe it cos the spell caster only asked for my name and my boyfriends name and all i wanted him to do… well we are happily married now and we are expecting our little kid,and my husband also got a new job and our lives became much better. in case anyone needs the spell caster for some help, email address: otisdarko60@yahoo.com

    GREAT OTIS DARKO I thank you very much thank you in 1000000 times.. if not you I would have been losted and wasted thank you. Email Him Through his email address... otisdarko60@yahoo.com

    please make sure you contact him for any financial difficulties okay..

    What a powerful man such as DR OTIS DARKO.. he is so much powerful..\\ email him for any difficulties.. otisdarko60@yahoo.com................... YOU CAN ALSO ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP USING THIS MOBILE NUMBER:+2348077526136

    ReplyDelete
  36. Could the ring show Katherine Carey?

    ReplyDelete
  37. Could the ring show Katherine Carey?

    ReplyDelete
  38. I'm Shawn Earl from Minneapolis,Minnesota,USA.i had problems in my relationship recently with the woman i wanted to marry,we loved each other so much and things were moving quite well for us,i proposed to her and lucky for me she accepted, so our wedding ceremony was Billed for February 2016. All arrangement were made for our wedding suddenly she became to act differently this was really a surprise for me and her family because this was unusual of her,she demanded the cancellation of the marriage plans for no concrete reason,then i realize that something was wrong,i later find out that she was under a spell by her formal Ex boyfriend,i didn't know what to do until my friend Martha introduce me to Dr.Candova the love spell caster,i contacted him via Email:CANDOVALOVESPELL@GMAIL.COM whatsapp him with his number +2348131612153,he broke the spell and restored my relationship back to me,just last week we got Married and this is all Thanks to Dr.Candova,contact him today to fix your Relationships,Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  39. Dr Malaika doesn’t ask for testimonies and he doesn’t charge. His email is odogwumalaika@gmail.com He is genuine and people get to meet him by luck.
    But right now am your luck if you meet him. Every other testimonies of spell casters you read here are scams.
    Dr Malaika lives in Nigeria and I happened to meet him by chance after a friend told me about how he brought back
    her ex and restored her lost womb. She also told me about how Dr Malaika cures all forms of illness ranging from
    HIV to Cancer, Fibroid, and Infertility and also Money spells. I followed those other internet testimonies and was
    hugely scammed to the extent that I wanted to kill myself. Dr Malaika turned my situation around, He made my ex
    come crawling on his knees to have him back. His email address is odogwumalaika@gmail.com , mobile: +2347065448120
    but please don’t make him know that I published
    him on net. He is just wonderful and I wish whoever that finds him good luck.

    ReplyDelete
  40. Dr Malaika doesn’t ask for testimonies and he doesn’t charge. His email is odogwumalaika@gmail.com He is genuine and people get to meet him by luck.
    But right now am your luck if you meet him. Every other testimonies of spell casters you read here are scams.
    Dr Malaika lives in Nigeria and I happened to meet him by chance after a friend told me about how he brought back
    her ex and restored her lost womb. She also told me about how Dr Malaika cures all forms of illness ranging from
    HIV to Cancer, Fibroid, and Infertility and also Money spells. I followed those other internet testimonies and was
    hugely scammed to the extent that I wanted to kill myself. Dr Malaika turned my situation around, He made my ex
    come crawling on his knees to have him back. His email address is odogwumalaika@gmail.com , mobile: +2347065448120
    but please don’t make him know that I published
    him on net. He is just wonderful and I wish whoever that finds him good luck.

    ReplyDelete
  41. MY NAME IS VICKY AND I AM FROM SAN DIEGO CALIFORNIA,I WANT TO SHARE A
    TESTIMONY OF A SPELL CASTER WHO REUNITE MY MARRIAGE WENT HIS POWERFUL SPELL
    CASTER.AND I ALSO WANT TO USE THIS OPPORTUNITIES TO WARN THOSE OUT THERE
    READING FAKE TESTIMONY ON SOCIAL NETWORK.BECAUSE I HAVE BEEN SCAMMED BY SO
    MANY FAKE SPELL CASTER. BE CAREFUL HERE BECAUSE NOBODY CAN HELP YOU HERE OR
    EVEN SUGGEST HOW YOU CAN GET YOUR EX OR LOVER BACK, TESTIMONIES OF MOST
    SPELL CASTER HERE MUST BE IGNORE.BECAUSE MOST OF THEM ARE SCAM I MEAN REAL
    SCAM WHICH I WAS A VICTIM OF BEFORE, I GOT RIPPED OF THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS
    BECAUSE I WAS SO ANXIOUS TO GET MY HUSBAND BACK AFTER HE LEFT ME FOR OVER 2
    YEARS WITH MY 7 YEARS OLD SON HARRY,I HAVE APPLIED TO 5 DIFFERENT SPELL
    CASTER HERE AND ALL TO NO AVAIL THEY ALL ASK FOR SAME THING SEND YOUR NAME
    YOUR EX NAME ADDRESS AND PICTURE PHONE NUMBER ETC WHICH I DID OVER AND OVER
    AGAIN AND MOST OF THEM WERE FROM WEST AFRICA UNTIL I SAW A POST ABOUT DR
    ALEXZANDER SPELL AND I DECIDED TO GAVE HIM MY LAST TRAIL.HE ASK ME FOUR
    THINGS MY REAL NAME,MY EX AND MY EX MOTHER NAME AND SAID MY EX WILL COME
    BACK IN 48HOURS, I HAVE SPEND ON SPELL CASTING AND NOTHING HAVE WORK FOR ME
    AFTER 2 DAYS I WAS THINKING ABOUT HOW MUCH I HAVE LOST SO FAR SO I SAID LET
    ME GIVE HIM A TRY SO I CALLED HIM AGAIN AND SEND MY REAL NAME,MY EX AND MY
    EX MOTHER NAME. BECAUSE I SWEAR IT WAS MY LAST TRY SO I WAS WAITING AS HE
    TOLD ME TO WAIT TILL NEXT DAY AND I COULD NOT SLEEP THAT NIGHT BECAUSE I
    REALLY LOVE MY HUSBAND AND WANT HIM BACK SO MUCH, THAT DAY I SAW MY HUSBAND
    WAS ONLINE ON FACEBOOK AND HE SAID HI AT FIRST I WAS SHOCK BECAUSE HE
    NEVER TALK WITH ME FOR THE PAST A YEAR AND 11 MONTH NOW I DID NOT REPLY
    AGAIN HE SAID ARE YOU THERE? I QUICKLY REPLY YES AND HE SAID CAN WE SEE
    TOMORROW I SAID YES AND HE WENT OFF-LINE I WAS CONFUSED I TRY TO CHAT WITH
    HIM AGAIN BUT HE WAS NO MORE ON LINE I COULD NOT SLEEP THAT NIGHT AS I WAS
    WONDERING WHAT HE IS GOING TO SAY, BY 9.AM THE NEXT MORNING HE GAVE ME A
    MISS CALL I DECIDED NOT TO CALL BACK AS I WAS STILL ON SHOCK AGAIN HE
    CALLED AND I PICK HE SAID CAN WE SEE AFTER WORK TODAY I SAID YES SO HE END
    THE CALL. IMMEDIATELY I GOT OFF WORK HE CALL ME AND WE MEET AND NOW WE ARE
    BACK AGAIN I CALL DR ALEXZANDER THE NEXT DAY THANKING HIM FOR WHAT HE HAS
    DONE IN FACT I STILL CALL HIM AND THANK HIM AS MY LIFE WAS NOT COMPLETE
    WITHOUT MY HUSBAND PLEASE BE CAREFUL HERE I HAVE BEEN SCAM THOUSANDS OF
    DOLLARS IF YOU WANT A TRUE LOVE SPELL THEN CONTACT..alexzanderhightemple@gmail.com or check him on his website.Alexzanderhightemple-com.webs.com

    ReplyDelete
  42. Is my gratitude and honor to say a big thanks to a man with truth and do as he promise plz every one on this site should join me and thank Dr.saviour for the glory and happiness he gave to me i break up with my husband 2 week back and i was down and do not know what to do until i saw a post about this spell caster Dr.saviour who i explain my situation to, and them he said to me cry not my daughter for what you seek for is right here in my temple he gave me hope when i have no hope to to my greatest notice, he did the spell for me and my husband was back 3 days after the spell plz if you need any help my advise is for you all go to Dr.saviour coz he is the best of all contact him via; dr.saviour12@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  43. It just occur to me that i have not done the right thing since when my husband came back to me, I am Mayer from United Kingdom, I am on this blog to give thanks to whom it deserve. Some couples of weeks ago my life was in a terrible shape because my husband left me and i never believe that i was going to get him back. But through the help of this powerful spell caster called Dr.Ogudugu my life is now in a joyful mood, I must recommend the services of Dr.Ogudugu to any one out there that they should contact Dr.Ogudugu through his email: GREATOGUDUGU@GMAIL.COM because through Dr.Ogudugu assistance, my marriage was restored.

    ***DR OGUDUGU SERVICES***

    * Reuniting Love Spells or Reuniting Lovers Spell.
    * Attracting Love Spells or Lovers Spells.
    * Psychic Love Spells.
    * Return & Reunite Love Spells (Lovers Spells).
    * Bring Back Lost Love Spells.
    * Poweful Magic Love Ring.
    * Powerful Love Talismans.
    * Black Magic Love Spells to make some one love you.
    * Love Spell Perfume to Attract Your Love.
    * Gay Love Spells.
    *Money Spells
    *Protection Spells
    *Binding Spells
    *Healing Spells
    *Job Spells
    *Fertility Spells
    *House Protection Spell
    *Justice Spells
    *Spells For Bad Dreams
    *Spells For Snake Bites, Scorpio, And Deadly Insects
    *Voodoo Dolls
    *Crystal Balls
    *Spirits Invocation
    *Genie Invocation
    *Magical Charms
    *Weight Loss Spells
    *Wish Spells
    *Prosperity Spells
    *Pregnancy Spells
    *Talismans
    *Banishing Spells

    ReplyDelete
  44. "" HOW I GOT MY EX BOYFRIEND BACK""

    I want to use this great medium to thank LORD MASUKA for helping me to get my boyfriend back after he dumped me for 3 months .My boyfriend breakup with me because he see another girl at his church and told me he is no longer want me and live me in pain and heart break.I seek for help on the internet and i saw so many good talk about this great spell caster LORD MASUKA of lordmasukaspelltemple@hotmail.com and i contacted him also and explain my problems to him and he cast a love spell for me which i use to get back my boyfriend within the period of 3 days and i am so grateful to him for the good work he has done for me,that is why i also want to let everyone who is in need of help out there to also seek help from him so he can help.His email is lordmasukaspelltemple@hotmail.com or lordmasukaspellhome711@gmail.com or call +2347053105287 or view and contact him on his website:
    http://lordmasukalovespelltemple.webs.com you can contact for any kind of help and he will help you. And you can also reach him on facebook Harry Masuka or Skype Lord masuka


    ReplyDelete
  45. After being in marriage with Clem for 8 years,he
    broke up our marriage, I did everything possible to bring our marriage back but all
    was in
    vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have
    for him and for our two kinds, just to make a better mom to our kinds, and to protect my family. I
    begged him with everything even with the name of our kinds, I made promises but he
    refused. I
    explained my problem to someone online and she
    suggested that I should
    rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell
    to bring
    our marriage back but I am the type that never believed in spell, I had
    no
    choice than to try it, I mailed the spell caster, and he told me
    there
    was no problem that everything will be okay before four
    days, that my
    husband will return to me before four days, he cast the spell and
    surprisingly in the second day, it was around 4pm. My husband
    called me, I
    was so surprised, I answered the call and all he says was
    that he was
    so sorry for everything that happened, that he is very very sorry for the pains he has put me and with our kinds, that he wanted us to
    return to
    him, that he loves us so much. I was so happy and went to
    him with our kinds, that
    was how we started living together happily again as one family, Since then
    I have
    made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship
    problem, I
    would be of help to such person by referring him or her to
    the only
    real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own
    marriage problems and
    who is different from all the other ones out there. Anybody
    could need
    the help of the spell caster, his email and his cell phone contact. dr.oduduherbalhome@gmail.com call whassap +2348101571054
    you can email him if you need his assistance in your
    relationship or
    any other problem THANKS!!!.

    ReplyDelete
  46. Time has come for Dr.Ogudugu to be given a better reward for his good works, I was suffering from heart break for almost a month before i was able to get Dr.Ogudugu contact details via email: greatogudugu@gmail.com and Dr.Ogudugu told me that he will be able to restore my broken relationship within 48 hours. After few hours that i contacted Dr.Ogudugu my lover called me and from there my relationship was restored.

    ReplyDelete
  47. No matter how a situation seems around you, there's is still hope to be happy again if truly you believe. My husband broke up with me and left me for no reason i suffered from emotional stress and pains but all thanks to Doctor Osemu Okpamen for getting back the love of my life with his powerful spell that he prepared for me to get back my husband and now am very pleased and happy again and i made a promise to him that i will keep on sharing his good deeds till the last day of my breath. If you need any help whatsoever, don't hesitate to contact him for if i can be helped by him you also can be helped too. Tracie Aldana from Kentucky USA and here is my cell number +1270-946-9415. If you need any help like getting a spell to get pregnant, spell to stop divorce, spell to cure any kind of diseases, E.T.C. Email; Doctorokpamenspelltemple@hotmail.com, Website: http://doctorokpamenpowerfulspelltemple.webs.com OR what'sapp on +2348135254384 or call on +2349032265990

    ReplyDelete
  48. The greatesst joy in my life now is that my love life has been restored by this great man and the best i can do now is to tell the whole world about this great man. This great man helped me when i had problem with my boyfriend and now my boyfriend is back in my arms if you are out there and you need a right place to solve your relationship problems contact this great man Dr Ogudugu is the right choice. He is a great man that have been casting spells with years of experience and he cast spells for different purposes like
    (1)If you want your ex back.
    (2)To cure Hiv/Aids.
    (3)You want to be promoted in your office.
    (4)If you want a child.

    Contact him today on his Email: greatogudugu@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  49. Today has being the most happiest day of my life after 1 year of sadness and sorrow without being with the one i love, i tried all my possible best to make sure i make my lover happy but it never seems to work out well it was like am doing everything in vain but all thanks to Lord Alika for coming to change all my worries and sadness to Joy. i knew the great man when i read some wonderful reviews about Lord Alika how he has helped a lots of people on there relationship problem i was reading a magazine which then i saw great testimonies as well which then i decided not to waste time.he told me not to worry that he assures me that within 48 hours everything would be sorted out i believed Lord Alika so much because i believe he can't fail me and i sent him all my details. Truly Lord Alika never failed me,my husband who left me for good a year come back to me. My husband and i have been living contentedly since this spell caster reunited us together with his love spells. Thank you so so so much Lord Alika for your powerful spells. expressions are not sufficient to say thank you. here is his email address lordalikaspelltemple@yahoo.co.uk or http://lordalikaspelltemp8.wix.com/http call him +2348072718865

    ReplyDelete
  50. from Poland I am out here to spread this good news to the entire world on how I got my ex lover back.I was going crazy when my love left me for another girl last month, But when i meet a friend that introduce me to DR Miracle the great messenger to the oracle that he serve,I narrated my problem to DR Miracle about how my ex love left me and also how i needed to get a job in a very big company.He only said to me that i have come to the right place were i will be getting my heart desire without any side effect.He told me what i need to do,After it was been done,In the next 2 days,My love called me on the phone and was saying sorry for living me before now and also in the next one week after my love called me to be pleading for forgiveness,I was called for interview in my desired company were i needed to work as the managing director..I am so happy and overwhelmed that i have to tell this to the entire world to contact DR Miracle is Email Via,(MIRACLESPELLHOME@YAHOO.COM) or his web, http://miraclespellhome.wix.com/dr-miracles,,,, and get all your problem solve..No problem is too big for him to solve..Contact him direct on,,(MIRACLESPELLHOME@YAHOO.COM) and get your problems solve like me,,,,,,

    ReplyDelete
  51. from Poland I am out here to spread this good news to the entire world on how I got my ex lover back.I was going crazy when my love left me for another girl last month, But when i meet a friend that introduce me to DR Miracle the great messenger to the oracle that he serve,I narrated my problem to DR Miracle about how my ex love left me and also how i needed to get a job in a very big company.He only said to me that i have come to the right place were i will be getting my heart desire without any side effect.He told me what i need to do,After it was been done,In the next 2 days,My love called me on the phone and was saying sorry for living me before now and also in the next one week after my love called me to be pleading for forgiveness,I was called for interview in my desired company were i needed to work as the managing director..I am so happy and overwhelmed that i have to tell this to the entire world to contact DR Miracle is Email Via,(MIRACLESPELLHOME@YAHOO.COM) or his web, http://miraclespellhome.wix.com/dr-miracles,,,, and get all your problem solve..No problem is too big for him to solve..Contact him direct on,,(MIRACLESPELLHOME@YAHOO.COM) and get your problems solve like me,,,,,,

    ReplyDelete
  52. An amazing testimony on a spell caster who brought my husband back to me. I am Cyndi Jensen by name a US citizen, 39 years Old. I reside here in Silver Springs Florida. My residential address is as follows. 7008 E Hwy 326 Silver Springs Florida 34488, United States. I'm happily married to a lovely and caring husband ,with two kids.A very big problem occurred in my family seven months ago,between me and my husband .so terrible that he took the case to court for a divorce.he said that he never wanted to stay with me again,and that he didn't love me anymore.So he packed out of the house and made me and my children passed through severe pain. I tried all my possible means to get him back,after much begging,but all to no avail.and he confirmed it that he has made his decision,and he never wanted to see me again. So on one evening,as i was coming back from work,i met an old friend of mine who asked of my husband .So i explained every thing to him,so he told me that the only way i can get my husband back,is to visit a spell caster,because it has really worked for him too.So i never believed in spell,but i had no other choice,than to follow his advice. Then he gave me the email address of the spell caster whom he visited {ehinomespellcaster@gmail.com}. So the next morning,i sent a mail to the address he gave to me,and the spell caster assured me that i will get my husband back the next day.What an amazing statement!! I never believed,so he spoke with me,and told me everything that i need to do. Then the next morning, So surprisingly, my husband who didn't call me for the past{7}months,gave me a call to inform me that he was coming back.So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and my children. Then from that day,our relationship was now stronger than how it were before,by the help of a spell caster. So, i will advice you out there, if you have any problem contact Dr Ehino, i give you 100% guarantee that he will help you!!. email him on: ehinomespellcaster@gmail.com or call him on +2348036345198, thanks Dr Unity for bringing back my husband ,and brought great joy to my family once again.

    ReplyDelete
  53. I want the world to know a great man that is well known as DR Miracle,he has the perfect solution to relationship issues and marriage problems. The main reason why i went to DR Miracle. was for solution on how i can get my husband back because in recent times i have read some testimonies on the internet which some people has written about DR Miracle, and i was so pleased and i decided to seek for assistance from him on his Email ,,,,,,,(MIRACLESPELLHOME@YAHOO.COM),,, which he did a perfect job by casting a spell on my husband which made him to come back to me and beg for forgiveness.I will no stop publishing his name on the net because of the good work he is doing. I will drop his contact for the usefulness of those that needs his help.His Email is ,,,(MIRACLESPELLHOME@YAHOO.COM),,, or his web, http://miraclespellhome.wix.com/dr-miracles,,,, You can contact him today and get your problem solved,,,,,,

    ReplyDelete
  54. Hello every one My name is Tuner, I never believed in a spell casting but After 6 years of dating my ex lover, we broke up for more than two months and it was like ten years, i was introduce to Dr. Ahmed through the internet and I contacted him and he brought my ex lover back to me in just 24 hour. No one could have ever made me believe that there is a real spell caster that really work. I want to tell the world that there is a real and online spell caster that is powerful and genuine, His name is Dr Ahmed, He helped me recently to reunite my relationship with my ex lover who has already left me for another woman, When i contacted Dr Ahmed with email jane_mts@yahoo.com he cast a love spell for me and my ex lover came back and start begging me to forgive him.

    Do you need a divorce ?
    Do you want your ex lover back?
    Do you want to get pregnant?
    Do you want your husband to appreciate you?
    Do you want to be famous or rich?
    Do you want to be a celebrity?
    Do you your business to grow excessively?
    Do you want to be honorably good academically?
    Do you need a job?
    Do you need a husband?
    Do you have problem in your marriage life?
    do you want to win lottery or win a court case?
    He can cast a spell to cure HIV.

    Contact him today with this email address jane_mts@yahoo.com today.

    ReplyDelete
  55. My name is Rusty Kate, from UK I never believed in love spells or magic until i met this spell caster once. when i went to Africa on a business summit. i meet a man called Dr. Erigo.He is powerful he could help you cast a spells to bring back my love?s gone,misbehaving lover looking for some one to love you, bring back lost money and magic money spell or spell for a good job.i?m now happy & a living testimony cos the man i had wanted to marry left me 3 weeks before our wedding and my life was upside down cos our relationship has been on for 2 years? i really loved him, but his mother was against me and he had no good paying job. so when i met this spell caster, i told him what happened and explained the situation of things to him..at first i was undecided,skeptical and doubtful, but i just gave it a try. and in 6 days when i returned to New York, my boyfriend (is now my husband ) he called me by himself and came to me apologizing that everything had been settled with his mom and family and he got a new job interview so we should get married.i didn?t believe it cos the spell caster only asked for my name and my boyfriends name and all i wanted him to do? well we are happily married now and we are expecting our little kid,and my husband also got a new job and our lives became much better. in case anyone needs the spell caster for some help, email;Erigospellcaster@gmail.com you can see what he can do and i believe that he can help you, Or you can email me to get more information on blissmichellelorraine@hotmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  56. WHO ARE THESE PEOPLE? I WONDER WHY SOME PEOPLE WILL BE HERE POSTING THE SAME THING EVERYDAY. I HAVE BEEN SCAMMED A NUMBER OF TIMES UNTIL I CAME ACROSS DR MALAIKA. HE MADE EVERYTHING POSSIBLE BY RESTORING MY MARRIAGE. HE BROUGHT HAPPINESS BACK INTO MY LIFE AT A VERY LITTLE COST. HE IS REAL AND CAN HELP YOU BRING BACK YOUR MAN AND CURE YOU OF WHATEVER SICKNESS OR SPIRITUAL PROBLEM AFFECTING YOUR LIFE.
    HIS EMAIL IS: odogwumalaika@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  57. Hello every body my name is Synder Anderson I just want to share my experience with the world on how Lord Alika help me, I got my love back and saved my marriage… I was married for 3 years with 1 kid and we lived happily until things started getting ugly and we had fights and argued almost e very time… it got worse at a point that he filed for divorce I tried my best to make him change his mind & stay with me because I love him so much and don’t want to lose him but everything just didn’t work out… he moved out of the house because it was a rented apartment and still went ahead to file for divorce… I pleaded and tried everything but still nothing worked. The breakthrough came when someone introduced me to this wonderful, great spell caster who eventually helped me out… I have never been a fan of things like this but just decided to try reluctantly because I was desperate and left with no choice… He did special prayers and used his power… Within 4 days my husband called me and he said he was sorry for all the emotional pains he had cost me, moved back to the house and we continue to live happily and our kid is happy too and we are expecting our second child… and my Husband also got a new job and our lives became much better web:http://lordalikaspelltemp8.wix.com/http I have introduced him to a lot of couples with problems across the world and they have had good news..contact him on lordalikaspelltemple@yahoo.co.uk or +13217666393. web:http://lordalikaspelltemp8.wix.com/http

    ReplyDelete
  58. I can only comment this; if you're going to 'with respect' question a Tudor historian of David Starkey's calibre at least do so within an article referencing more than Alison Weir at every turn. Your article is very well thought out and wonderfully constructed but its reliability is rendered almost naught by that element.

    ReplyDelete
  59. I loved your article. Why wouldn't Elizabeth feel love for her Mother. The portrait of her wearing the A necklace tells it all. As for the ring it is an amazing piece of art. Whoever the other person is had to be someone dear to her heart.

    ReplyDelete
  60. I loved your article. Why wouldn't Elizabeth feel love for her Mother. The portrait of her wearing the A necklace tells it all. As for the ring it is an amazing piece of art. Whoever the other person is had to be someone dear to her heart.

    ReplyDelete
  61. WITH A GRATEFUL HEART Dr MOMODU is a real spell caster, he is so powerful, unique, and amazing. Dr MOMODU restored happiness to my life again by bringing my husband back to me with his powers. Dr MOMODU is a gifted and a very powerful good man and if not for him what would my life turn to? Dr MOMODU may your good gods continue to bless you for your good deeds. Dr MOMODU words can not express how much good you have done for me and i believe that even a thousand words won't be enough to describe your good great works. If you are facing any spiritual problem i advice you not to cry just contact Dr MOMODU on his email or and he will solve all your problems. Contact him on his email: drmomoduspelltemple@yahoo.com OR drmomoduspelltemple@hotmail.com DR. Momodu for the excessive work that he has done for me. his Via web sit: http://drmomoduspelltempl.wix.com/http OR you can call him with number +15306253704

    ReplyDelete
  62. WITH A GRATEFUL HEART Dr MOMODU is a real spell caster, he is so powerful, unique, and amazing. Dr MOMODU restored happiness to my life again by bringing my husband back to me with his powers. Dr MOMODU is a gifted and a very powerful good man and if not for him what would my life turn to? Dr MOMODU may your good gods continue to bless you for your good deeds. Dr MOMODU words can not express how much good you have done for me and i believe that even a thousand words won't be enough to describe your good great works. If you are facing any spiritual problem i advice you not to cry just contact Dr MOMODU on his email or and he will solve all your problems. Contact him on his email: drmomoduspelltemple@yahoo.com OR drmomoduspelltemple@hotmail.com DR. Momodu for the excessive work that he has done for me. his Via web sit: http://drmomoduspelltempl.wix.com/http OR you can call him with number +15306253704

    ReplyDelete
  63. My name is katherine i am from Chicago am 25
    years old i got married at the age of 23 i
    have only one child and i was living
    happily .After one year of my marriage my
    husband behavior became so strange and i
    don’t really understand what was going on,
    he packed out of the house to another
    woman i love him so much that i never
    dream’s of losing him, i try my possible best
    to make sure that my husband get back to
    me but all to no avail, i cry and cry seeking
    for help, i discussed it with my best friend
    Allix and she promise to help me. She told
    me of a man called DR VOODOO, she told me he
    is a very great man and a real man that can
    be trusted and there is nothing concerning
    love issues he cannot solve and she told me
    how he has help countless number of
    people in restoring their relationship. I was
    really convince, I quickly contacted his email
    address at voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com .
    I explain all my problem to him, he told me
    that i should not worry that all my problems
    will be solved immediately. He told me what
    to do to get my husband back and i did, he
    said after 3days my husband will come back
    to me and start begging, and it really
    happen as he said, i was very surprise, this is so amazing.
    To God be the glory our relationship is now
    very tight and we both live happily again. If
    you having similar problem, Contact him
    now(voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com) and
    get your problem solve once and for all. i am living testimony to it.
    (1) If you want your ex back.
    (2) if you always have bad dreams.
    (3) You want to be promoted in your office.
    (4) You want women/men to run after you.
    (5) If you want a child.
    (6) You want to be rich.
    (7) You want to tie your husband/wife to be
    yours forever.
    (8) If you need financial assistance.
    (9) How you been scammed and you want to recover you lost money.
    (10)if you want to stop your divorce.
    (11)if you want to divorce your husband.
    (12)if you want your wishes to be granted.
    once again the email address is
    voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com contact him
    immediately.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. My name is dr.midnight from United States. I wish to
      share my testimony with the general public about
      A great spell caster called (Dr.midnight5@gmail.com) have done for me,
      this temple
      have just brought back my lost ex
      lover to me with their great spell work, I was dating this man called
      Steven we were together for a long
      time and we loved our self's but when I was unable
      to give him a male child for 5 years he left me and told
      me he can't continue anymore then I was now
      looking for ways to get him back and also get pregnant, until a friend
      of mine told me about this temple and gave me their contact email,
      then you won't believe this when I contacted them on my problems they
      prepared the items and cast the spell for me and bring my lost husband
      back, and after a month I missed my monthly flow and go for a test and
      the result stated that i was pregnant, am happy today am a mother of
      a set of twins a boy and a girl, i thank the temple once again for
      what they have done for me, if you are out there passing through any
      of this problems you can contact this great Dr for help listed below:
      Contact them...(drmidnight5@gmail.com)or whatsapp them on +2347037137208

      Delete
  64. My Wife left me,,,for some one else and she deny it,,we have been married for 12 years but have been together for 28 years,i feel sick to the core,we have a 15 year old daughter and its affecting her life also .i just dont know what to do,i dont want to throw her out ,dont think i could face it on my own, not until i go online and i saw how Dr happy help to restored back broken marriage and fix up relationship i just feel very weak and depressed.i love my wife and i want her back to our daughter so i decided to give a try to Dr happy who i put my trust and believe on immediately after i contact him, gave him all our details and do what he ask of me, a day after the spell trust me my wife was back and this time she love and care for me and my daughter all thank to Dr happy if you fine it difficult or have any problem with your marriage, relationship, getting ex back, you can call Dr happy on his mobile number +2348133873774 or still email him via

    happylovespell2@gmail.com

    web site: http://happylovespell.webs.com

    ReplyDelete
  65. Wow i never thought i will happy in my life ever again, i want you all to thank DR OGUDUGU of GREATOGUDUGU@GMAIL.COM, he is a father that takes care of his children the spell caster of our time, he has saved me from a very ugly situation that almost made my life miserable and i want you all to thank him for me,my husband and i have be married for so many years now with children and the relationship was being threatened by a small girl in his working place,she was almost destroying my home i met so many spell casters but to no avail until i met a friend who came from africa and she told me about DR OGUDUGU, and i decided to contact him and try him out as i was losing faith in all spell casters, but he told not to worry that now am in his temple everything will be alright he assured me 100% that his spell has no side effects and that it will work straight and save my home and my marriage and after he has performed the sacrifices and casted the spell, my husband came back to us with love and affection and he loved us more and more and he never looked back or none did his love for me waiver, if you are also experiencing this sort of your situation in your home, if your husband is drifting away, if you are experiencing a broken home or you have lost your husband to a young woman outside there then look no further help is here as GREATOGUDUGU@GMAIL.COM is ready to help you out okay for any of your problem is it financial needs, revenge spell,Hiv cure, job spell, promotion spell what kind of spell do you need DR OGUDUGU is going to solve it for you okay i have promised him to always talk of his good works to the world in general and to any body who cares to listen, you can email him on his personal email on or GREATOGUDUGU@GMAIL.COM and he will attend to you as soon as possible okay once again his email is GREATOGUDUGU@GMAIL.COM.

    ReplyDelete
  66. Your writing style has been amazed me. Thank you, very nice post.
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    ReplyDelete
  67. My name is dr.midnight from United States. I wish to
    share my testimony with the general public about
    A great spell caster called (Dr.midnight5@gmail.com) have done for me,
    this temple
    have just brought back my lost ex
    lover to me with their great spell work, I was dating this man called
    Steven we were together for a long
    time and we loved our self's but when I was unable
    to give him a male child for 5 years he left me and told
    me he can't continue anymore then I was now
    looking for ways to get him back and also get pregnant, until a friend
    of mine told me about this temple and gave me their contact email,
    then you won't believe this when I contacted them on my problems they
    prepared the items and cast the spell for me and bring my lost husband
    back, and after a month I missed my monthly flow and go for a test and
    the result stated that i was pregnant, am happy today am a mother of
    a set of twins a boy and a girl, i thank the temple once again for
    what they have done for me, if you are out there passing through any
    of this problems you can contact this great Dr for help listed below:
    Contact them...drmidnight5@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  68. Out of the abundance of the heart, the mouth speaks. Am William Hall Bush from NY, USA. My wife EX husband used a spell on my wife and she went back to him. I felt heart broken for i didn't know how to get her back. I did all i could do to get her back with her close friends but nothing worked out. So, in my place of work, i tried searching for help online and i found various testifiers of how a Doctor named Adoda has been faithful & helpful with his spells. I gave it a try by getting in touch with him and i explained my problem to him. Doctor Adoda prepared a spell for me that brought back my wife within 12 to 16 hours after i contacted him. He assured me that nothing can break us apart again and since 2015 till this moment, i have been full of joy with my wife. Contact him today for any kind of help, He is ready to help.. via Email: adodalovespelltemple@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  69. My name is dr.midnight from United States. I wish to
    share my testimony with the general public about
    A great spell caster called (Dr.midnight5@gmail.com) have done for me,
    this temple
    have just brought back my lost ex
    lover to me with their great spell work, I was dating this man called
    Steven we were together for a long
    time and we loved our self's but when I was unable
    to give him a male child for 5 years he left me and told
    me he can't continue anymore then I was now
    looking for ways to get him back and also get pregnant, until a friend
    of mine told me about this temple and gave me their contact email,
    then you won't believe this when I contacted them on my problems they
    prepared the items and cast the spell for me and bring my lost husband
    back, and after a month I missed my monthly flow and go for a test and
    the result stated that i was pregnant, am happy today am a mother of
    a set of twins a boy and a girl, i thank the temple once again for
    what they have done for me, if you are out there passing through any
    of this problems you can contact this great Dr for help listed below:
    Contact them...(drmidnight5@gmail.com)or whatsapp them on +2347037137208

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. My Fiancé was really quiet and looked angry toward me when he came back from the office He seemed moody and don’t care about dinner, he even canceled our plans because of huge pressure from his family members. After taking some misleading advises from some of his family members. We have been dating for more than 3 years and planning our future together. He said it’s over, when I asked what was wrong, he was very angry and wanted me out of his sight. A good friend of mine who knows about our broke up introduce me to a love spell caster who helped him with a spell that brought back his girlfriend. I thought that the idea of a love spell was strange, but was willing to give it a try. When I contacted Dr. ezomo for the first time I was scared but he assured me that he only uses white magic which is safe and has no side effects. I felt a little better and decided to do the return lover spell. Within 4 days after the spell is cast he showed up at my office, he said that he missed me and he wants us to be together again. Am so happy and I want to say a big thanks to Dr. ezomo for his wonderful work We are back together and our relationship has been better the second time. You can contact via his email address: drezomospellhome@hotmail.com or contact him through whatsapp +2349055406117 or contact me ;edwardkimberly24@gmail.com for more information about dr ezomo.,

      Delete
  70. Am Akers from canada, I want to thank a powerful spell caster called Dr oniha, who helped me bring my ex lover back, my husband left me with my two kids, and I have no job, I pleaded with him to come back and he refused, until someone recommended me to Dr oniha, and he cast a spell on my husband, now my husband is back to me, and we are living happily. In case you want to contact Dr oniha for a similar problem, you can reach him through his email dronihaspell@yahoo.com or call him at +2349059942347.

    ReplyDelete
  71. My Fiancé was really quiet and looked angry toward me when he came back from the office He seemed moody and don’t care about dinner, he even canceled our plans because of huge pressure from his family members. After taking some misleading advises from some of his family members. We have been dating for more than 3 years and planning our future together. He said it’s over, when I asked what was wrong, he was very angry and wanted me out of his sight. A good friend of mine who knows about our broke up introduce me to a love spell caster who helped him with a spell that brought back his girlfriend. I thought that the idea of a love spell was strange, but was willing to give it a try. When I contacted Dr. ezomo for the first time I was scared but he assured me that he only uses white magic which is safe and has no side effects. I felt a little better and decided to do the return lover spell. Within 4 days after the spell is cast he showed up at my office, he said that he missed me and he wants us to be together again. Am so happy and I want to say a big thanks to Dr. ezomo for his wonderful work We are back together and our relationship has been better the second time. You can contact via his email address: drezomospellhome@hotmail.com or contact him through whatsapp +2349055406117 or contact me ;edwardkimberly24@gmail.com for more information about dr ezomo.,

    ReplyDelete
  72. Hello, I'm here to introduce someone to you all, his name is Dr.Ekpen Temple a spell caster that help me restored my broken relationship, I saw an article on the Internet someone talking about him how he help her in her relationship, today I'm a beneficial of that article, so that is why I'm also talking about how he has helped me so that someone out there that is facing the same challenge can also contact him for help. Here is DR EKPEN TEMPLE contact info: ekpentemple@gmail.com or on Whatsapp number +2347050270218.

    ReplyDelete
  73. GREAT OGUDUGU!!! You have done it again, you have showed me your powers which i have been hearing from different people, but now am talking out of experience, Dr Ogudugu you are the greatest spell caster that i believed that is existing cause you brought back my lover who left me since 2015 within 24 hours, Sir you are the greatest, thanks for your great work in my life, and i will live to remember you cause you put a smile on my face by making my dream to come to past, thank you once again sir. My friends out there who needs help, i will advice you contact Dr Ogudugu for help cause he is a great man, here is Dr Ogudugu's email: greatogudugu@gmail.com.

    ReplyDelete
  74. The risk I took became the best decision I have ever made in my marriage. I took the risk by contacting lord Abu spell caster to help bring back my husband who left for almost a year, after all my failed attempt.

    I stopped trusting people especially on the internet after someone almost brainwashed my sister to sell our home when she was searching for true lover. We were so lucky to stop her. I made up my mind never to pay attention to anyone trying to help. But something inside of me forced me to search for solution online and I was lucky to receive help from lord Abu.

    He proved me wrong that there are still good spell caster out there by genuinely casting the love spell which brought my husband back within 5 days. lord abu was my last hope and he proved his true power even with my sister, she welcomed her first child after 4years of marriage. Everything said about lord abu and his work are true, he taught me so many ways to deal with any forms of pressure in life. So glad am redeemed spiritually. his eamil address again is lordabutemple@yahoo.com or website http://lordabu.wixsite.com/http

    ReplyDelete
  75. The risk I took became the best decision I have ever made in my marriage. I took the risk by contacting lord Abu spell caster to help bring back my husband who left for almost a year, after all my failed attempt.

    I stopped trusting people especially on the internet after someone almost brainwashed my sister to sell our home when she was searching for true lover. We were so lucky to stop her. I made up my mind never to pay attention to anyone trying to help. But something inside of me forced me to search for solution online and I was lucky to receive help from lord Abu.

    He proved me wrong that there are still good spell caster out there by genuinely casting the love spell which brought my husband back within 5 days. lord abu was my last hope and he proved his true power even with my sister, she welcomed her first child after 4years of marriage. Everything said about lord abu and his work are true, he taught me so many ways to deal with any forms of pressure in life. So glad am redeemed spiritually. his eamil address again is lordabutemple@yahoo.com or website http://lordabu.wixsite.com/http

    ReplyDelete
  76. This is Angel Sean from USA, am sharing this article to give thanks to Dr.Vanisa, who helped me to bring back my EX lover that broke up with me for 2 months. I was searching for advise on what to do to get back my EX lover and i came across a post of a woman in USA called Angela Shuane giving thanks to Dr.Vanisa, for helping her to get back her lost HUSBAND who left her for years with her kids. I contacted the spell caster for help due to the fact that i needed my EX lover desperately because he is my lover and my life. To God be the glory, my EX lover came back to me within 12 to 16 after Dr.Vanisa, finished preparing the spell and i want the world to join me to give thanks to Dr.Vanisa, for helping me. Viewers reading my article that also need his help should contact Dr.Vanisa, with his email : [vanisaspellcaster@gmail.com]...he do cure nerve problem.....

    ReplyDelete
  77. This has really worked and I am proud to testify of it. I saw a post on how a lady got her man back by Dr. Trust who helped her to get her Ex Husband back. My relationship was crashed down for 3 good years and some months. Although I never believed in spiritual work I reluctantly tried him because I was desperate but to my greatest surprise Dr. Trust helped me to bring back my man and now my relationship is now perfect just as he promised. Getting your ex back permanently spell does not only bring back someone you love back,but it will also re-ignite your lovers feelings for you to be as happy with that person as possible. My man now treats me like a queen and always say he love me all the time. If you are passing through difficulties in your relationship Email him for urgent help.

    Ultimatespellcast@yahoo.com or Ultimatespellcast@gmail.com
    websit: http://ultimatespellcast8.wix.com/ultimatespellcast
    Call +2348156885231

    ReplyDelete
  78. This has really worked and I am proud to testify of it. I saw a post on how a lady got her man back by Dr. Trust who helped her to get her Ex Husband back. My relationship was crashed down for 3 good years and some months. Although I never believed in spiritual work I reluctantly tried him because I was desperate but to my greatest surprise Dr. Trust helped me to bring back my man and now my relationship is now perfect just as he promised. Getting your ex back permanently spell does not only bring back someone you love back,but it will also re-ignite your lovers feelings for you to be as happy with that person as possible. My man now treats me like a queen and always say he love me all the time. If you are passing through difficulties in your relationship Email him for urgent help.

    Ultimatespellcast@yahoo.com or Ultimatespellcast@gmail.com
    websit: http://ultimatespellcast8.wix.com/ultimatespellcast
    Call +2348156885231

    ReplyDelete
  79. Thank you for your miracle Doctor Osemu Okpamen

    This article is dedicated to the Doctor Osemu Okpamen. I have been married with my wife for 5 years and recently she broke up with me and it hurt me deeply when she told me to leave her alone and that she does not love me anymore when i was always faithful and honest to her. I tried all the ways to get her back buying her what she wants like i always did and she still left me heart broken and she even has a new boyfriend which destroyed me even more until a friend of mine from high school directed me to this genuine spell Doctor called Osemu Okpamen. This man changed my life completely. I followed everything he told me to do and my wife came back begging for me back. I was stunned everything happened exactly like he told me. I had faith in everything he told me and everything was true. Also he was there every moment until i got my happiness back and he also provides spells that cures impotence, bareness, diseases such as HIV/AID E.T.C You can contact him via email at { Doctorokpamenspelltemple@yahoo.com } or visit his website http://www.doctorokpamenspells.com. He will help you in anything you need and quick to answer once you contact him or call me for more info +1 (914)-517-3229.

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  80. For those that are looking for a Real spell caster. Before I came in contact with Dr UZOYA I have went to different psychics and spell casters to get my love back and to get a negative spell off me and nothing happened. Dr UZOYA I will give credit where it is due. Dr UZOYA is a spell caster that you will ever find. I am in a place in my life were i thought it would never happen again,But here i am my love has returned back to me also i feel it in my body and soul that the negative spells that was on me is broken. I'm telling you if you have been to other spell casters, psychics with no results or you never been to one and you need help. Contact Dr UZOYAY on this email address: [driraborspellcaster@gmail.com] or call him on +13019098775 you will be glad you did...I am Doris from United Kingdom

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  81. Dr.Ogumen has made me to believe that one can still rise after fall .Dr.Ogumen made it possible to bring back my ex husband after 3years of separation and now me and my lost husband are now happily together all because of the powerful love spell Dr.Ogumen cast for me. Dr Ogumen is a well recordnised love spell caster all over the world. He is very important in the society because he has the power to restore broken relationship and bring back ex lover all within the space of 3days. If you need his help you can reach he on his email : (ogumensolutioncenter@gmail.com)call (+2348112060028) if u want to WhatsApp with him (+2347064358629) I believe that he can solve your problem.

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  82. iam so excited my lover is back with the help of this great love spell caster Dr. wise who helped me bring my ex back. if you are heart broken you can also contact him. call or whatsapp +2347019845256 email address: drwiselovespelltemple@gmail.com

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  83. Hello viewer's ,I promise to share this testimony all over the world once my Ex Lover return back to me, and today with all due respect i want to thank...LORD MASUKA for helping in getting my Ex Lover back to me, i have been in great pains until the day i contacted LORD MASUKA he cast a Reunite love spell for me and told me to wait for just 24 hours that my Lover will call me and i did according to the instructions given to me by him and surprisingly, in 24 hours, my Ex Lover really called me and started apologizing for all he had caused me. I am the happiest woman on earth today because LORD MASUKA has done a wonderful deeds in my life and i will continue to share this testimony,if you have any issue of any kind he is there for you. You can contact LORD MASUKA
    His Email lordmasukaspelltemple@hotmail.com
    Phone number +2347053105287
    Website http://lordmasukalovespelltemple.webs.com/
    Skype Lord masuka
    Facebook harry Masuka

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  84. Good day,,,,
    Read my testimony!!! Getting ex back after a breakup. Am Clara Bartlett 30 from UK, my boyfriend of a 2year just broke up with me and am 28 weeks pregnant. I have cried my self to sleep most of the nights and don’t seem to concentrate during lectures sometimes I stay awake almost all night thinking about him and start to cry all over again. Because of this I end up not having energy for my next day’s classes, my attendance has dropped and am always in uni and on time. Generally he is a very nice guy, he ended it because he said we were arguing a lot and not getting along. He is right we’ve been arguing during the pregnancy a lot. After the break up I kept ringing him and telling him I will change. I am in love with this guy and he is the best guy I have ever been with. I’m still hurt and in disbelief when he said he didn’t have any romantic feelings towards me anymore that hurt me faster than a lethal syringe. He texts me now and then mainly to check up on how am doing with the pregnancy, he is supportive with it but it’s not fair on me, him texting me as I just want to grieve the pain and not have any stress due to the pregnancy. i was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Ahmed can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a spell for me. 22 hours later, my boyfriend came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. I and my boyfriend are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Ahmed. as it is a place to resolve marriage/relationship issues, do you want to be sure if your spouse is being faithful to you or Do you want your Ex to come back to you?
    Contact.: E-mail: Ahmedutimate@gmail.com, call/Whats-app: +2348160153829
    save your crumbling home and change of grades its 100% safe.
    I suggest you contact him. He will not disappoint you.

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  85. My name is Jennifer am from uk I am out here to spread this good news to the entire world on how I got my husband back.I was going crazy when my husband left me and my two kids for another woman last month, But when i met a friend that introduced me to Dr MIRACLE of temple of grace, the great messenger to the oracle. I narrated my problem to him about how my Husband left me and my two kids.He only said to me that i have come to the right place were i will be getting my heart desire without any delay .He told me what i need to do,After it was been done 3 day later,My Husband called me on the phone and was saying sorry for living me and the kids before now and one week after my Husband called me to be pleading for forgiveness.I am so happy and overwhelmed that i have to tell this to the entire world to contact Dr MIRACLE on his personal email address and get all your problem solved.No problem is too big for him to solve..Contact him directly on his email MIRACLETEMPLE11@GMAIL.COM CELL PHONE +2348151795598

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  86. I was with my ex for 3 years n 6mthns n he cheated on me so we split, before he left me, we were planing to get married in the future, I loved him so much but I became tired of him lying to me every time he opens his mouth, I went into search for help in the internet, I tried many different spells from almost every place locally as well as online and none of them worked, I almost gave up hope because I thought i will never see my lover again forever, one day i saw some testimony about this powerful spell caster Dr. Todd i emailed him and i asked him to help me bring back my lover and he did A Lover Spell for me And after some days, my lover returned back to me I'd like to say that i got a positive result from (manifestspellcast@gmail.com) ever since i used his love spell, my lover have learned to appreciate me more and more day by day, and he doesn't take me for granted.

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  87. High priest zimu has done it again for me after helping a woman to get her husband back.i want to let the world know about high priest zimu the Great spell caster that brought back my Ex wife to me when i thought all hope was lost. High priest zimu used his powerful spell to put a smile on my face by bring back my woman with his spell, at first i thought i was dreaming when my wife came back to me on her knees begging me to forgive her and accept her back and even since then she loves me more than i ever expected so i made a vow to my self that i will let the World know about High priest zimu because he is a great man. Do you have problems in your relationship? have your partner broke up with you and you still love and want him or her back? Do you have problem with your finance ? kind then contact high priest zimu today for i give you 100% guarantee that he will help you just as he helped me. High priest zimu email address is: (dr.zimuzimulaspelltemple@gmail.com)
    THESE ARE THE THINGS Dr ZIMU CURE
    . HERPES
    . HIV/AIDS
    . CANCER
    . DIABETIES
    . LASSA FEVER
    . GONORRHEA
    . MENOPAUSE DISEASE
    . EPILEPSY
    . ASEPSIS
    GET YOUR LOVE ONE BACK

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  88. I am very grateful to this great spell caster who brought my ex husband back to me. This testimony is a true story and my name is renato Sanchez. When i came in contact with this man was also through a testimony written about him and i have also encountered many testimonies about how he has been helping others with their life. To get back with an ex is one of the most inner most feeling many people would love to experience especially as those memories with our ex always cloud our mind when someone else does some of those things our ex used to do. I was a single parent for almost 6 years and though my ex husband was far away from my kids i still wish someday he will return back to me. This spell doctor i encountered known as Doctor UZOYA helped me with my wishes and i am happy to say that i am back with my ex husband and i am very happy sharing the testimony with everyone so that they too can meet this great doctor and solve their problems. I don't know what others might feel about getting their ex back in their life but i always know there is a blessing in disguise with just a single reconnection with an ex. If you want to successfully get back with your ex, contact this great spell caster at driraborspellcaster@gmail.com you can also call him on +13019098775 and share an awesome testimony too just like me.

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  89. After being in relationship with him for seven years,he broke up with me, I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back but I am the type that never believed in spell, I had no choice than to try it, I mailed the spell caster, and he told me there was no problem that everything will be okay before three days, that my ex will return to me before three days, he cast the spell and surprisingly in the second day, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and who is different from all the fake ones out there. Anybody could need the help of the spell caster, his email: drosedebamenspellhome@gmail.com you can email him if you need his assistance in your relationship or anything. CAN NEVER STOP TALKING ABOUT YOU SIR HIS EMAIL ADDRESS IS:drosedebamenspellhome@gmail.com CONTACT HIM NOW FOR SOLUTION TO ALL YOUR PROBLEM

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  90. My name is Alicia,from UK.I contacted Mr. Femi okuns, after wasting time on other so called witches & spell-casters. I spent thousands of dollars with no results. Up to the point where I contacted via email: homeofspells.247@gmail.com I had No contact with my lost love,my husband whom he helped to bring back to me permanently.I realized Dr was special, because,the day and moment i sent our details,He asked me to call my husband, after two months of No contact at all.from that point,everything changed,now my husband is back to me.
    Mr. Femi has since cast 3 different spells for my friends and all are working fine.the days whilst he is performing the spells, He is there, as he says on his site 24/7. I live in the UK, and the time difference makes it difficult to keep in touch within reasonable hours, but he is always willing to listen and cast spells.
    I am confident that the results you wish for will manifest when you call or whatsap Mr. Femi okuns,+2347050775844 also via email: homeofspells.247@gmail.com . I want to share my testimony he is more than a wizard, he is a friend, mentor and spiritual spell-caster, He also specializes on the follows;
    *Divorce reconciliation
    *Marriage reconciliation
    *Business growth
    *Promotion in your place of work/office
    *Making banks to grants loans
    *Cures of diseases such as; Cancer, Hiv Aids, Zika virus, Herpes Disease, Sexual Infection E.T.C.
    *Pregnancy or Fertility spell
    *Getting your EX/lover back
    *Getting your wife/husband back
    *Getting your boyfriend/girlfriend back



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  91. My mouth is full of testimonies, Dr Otoide has bring joy and happiness to my life again, My name is Ruben Joseph and i have been in a Job that been since 4years now, fortunately i only got promoted only once and ever since i have never been promoted again, i cry day and night thinking of what could have gone wrong, that until now i have never been famous, until i read a news paper about a powerful spell caster called Dr Otoide and i contacted the spell caster to help me get my life back to me and he ask me not to worry about it that the gods we fight for me.. he told me by mid-day when all the evil spirit is at rest he will cast a spell that will make me famous and known in the world. and he did in less than 3 days my boss promoted me to be the manager, today i am more than grateful that my life is back fully, and i won't stop discussing the work of Dr Otoide until everyone hear of his name, I'm so happy for what this spell caster did for me and for making me today very wealthy and famous. you can also reach him and get the same result on his email:drotoidesolutiontemple@gmail.com or his cell phone:+2347089081873 or his website:https://drotoidesolutionte.wixsite.com/dr-otoide

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  92. I never believed in spell casting, but After 6 years of dating, I still imagine how Dr Aza brought my ex lover back to me in just 24 hour. No one could have ever made me believe that there is a real spell caster that really work. am sandra by name,I want to quickly tell the world that there is a real on line spell caster that is powerful and genuine, His name is Dr Aza, He helped me recently to reunite my relationship when my ex lover who left me, When i contacted Dr Aza he cast a love spell for me and my ex lover who said he doesn't have anything to do with me again, he called me and started begging me. he is back now with so much love and caring. today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the powers of bring lovers back. because i am now happy with my lover,and the most surprise,is that our love is very strong,every day is happiness and joy. and there is nothing like been with the man you love.i am so happy my love is back to me with the help of Dr.Aza if you have similar problem i will advice you to contact him ,he is there to help you and put a smile on your face. his email: azaspellcaster@gmail.com or you can whatsApp his line:+2348107155060 or see more at http://azaspellcaster.wixsite.com/spell-caster

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